This page was last modified on 24 March 2017, at 21:45.

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Lessons

According to the new Education Act, the teaching is based on the curricular documents of two levels – framework education programmes, issued by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, and school education programmes, prepared by individual schools. The framework education programmes were developed by the Research Institute of Education (courses of secondary general school – gymnázium and one-year and two-year practical school – praktická škola) and the National Institute of Technical and Vocational Education (vocational courses), which became part of the newly established National Institute for Education in 2011. In the 2015/2016 school year most pupils are already being educated according to the new educational programmes (for more information on the reform see section Current State of the Curricular Reform in Chapter 2).



General education

The Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education (FEP SGE) and Framework Education Programme for Sports Training Secondary General Schools, designed for four-year general secondary schools (gymnázia) and upper level of multi-year general secondary schools (víceletá gymnázia) (ISCED 344), were published in August 2007. On the basis of this programme, each school prepared its own school education programme (SEP) and began to teach according to it, starting with the first grades from 2009/10 at the latest. In the school year 2014/15, the instruction has been carried out according to the SEPs in all grades. At the same time, the number of the secondary general courses has been reduced. The SEP should respect the concrete needs of the school and its pupils and enable the school to create its own specialisation. 

Apart from the general secondary school (gymnázium) branch, another branch of general secondary schools remained – the Sports Training Secondary General Schools. The general part of the Framework Education Programme for Sports Training General Secondary Schools is identical with the FEP SGE (see in the following section), and the specific part has been prepared in collaboration with the Association of School Heads of Sports Training Secondary General Schools (Asociace ředitelů gymnázií se sportovní přípravou), thus with the school heads and teachers of these secondary general schools. In total, 64 teaching hours are devoted to physical education and sports training which means that the total compulsory number of teaching hours during studies is 184 and concurrently the number of lessons per week in one grade is 46. 

For the lower level of multi-year general secondary schools (víceletá gymnázia) (ISCED 244), the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education is the binding document (see chapter on Single Structure Education). Nevertheless, the multi-year general secondary schools have the possibility to create one school education programme for the whole period of six or eight years of education, or they can create two separate SEPs, one for the lower and one for the higher level of education.

The new Framework Education Programme for Bilingual General Secondary Schools will be binding for bilingual six-year general secondary schools (dvojjazyčná gymnázia) from 2016, for more details see the section Language Education.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Framework Educational Programme for Bilingual Secondary General School - Pilot version

Framework Educational Programme for Secondary General Education

Framework Education Programme for Sports Training Secondary General Schools

Basic Education


The Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education

The Framework Education Programme for General Secondary Education (FEP SGE) stipulates:

  • the concept and objectives of secondary general education
  • key competences which should be acquired by pupils
  • educational areas and cross-curricular themes
  • a framework curriculum timetable
  • rules to design the school education programme (SEP)
  • conditions of education of pupils with special educational needs (pupils with health disabilities or disadvantages and pupils from different cultural environment and socially disadvantageous environment)
  • conditions of education of exceptionally gifted pupils
  • material, personnel and educational-psychological conditions, conditions of safety and mental hygiene and manual labour hygiene, psycho-social   conditions and organisational and management conditions of secondary general education

FEP SGE sets the following key competencies:

  •     learning competencies
  •     problem solving competencies
  •     communication competencies
  •     social and personal competencies
  •     civic competencies
  •     entrepreneurship competencies

Each of the eight educational areas (see framework curriculum timetable for secondary general schools) has its characteristic, objectives and content of education (expected outcomes and subject matter). Each area is divided into one or more educational courses. For cross-curricular themes the characteristic, the contribution to pupil's personal development and the thematic fields are set. The main emphasis is on educational outcomes. The expected pupils' key competencies are now defined. Close attention is also paid to pupils' systems of values and their personal and social development, which the cross-curricular themes should primarily contribute to.

Following cross-curricular themes are incorporated into teaching:

  •  Personal and social education
  •  Education towards thinking in the European and global contexts
  •  Multicultural education
  •  Environmental education
  •  Media studies


Framework Curriculum Timetable for General Secondary Schools

Educational area
Educational field
Total number of teaching hours during the study
Language and language communication
Czech language and literature 12
obligatory in each grade
Foreign language 11)
12 obligatory in each grade
Foreign language 21)
12 obligatory in each grade
Mathematics and its application
10 obligatory in grades 1 to 3
People and nature




Physics 36



obligatory in grades 1 to 2

Chemistry
Biology
Geography2)
Geology
People and society


Civic and social science essentials
History
Geography2)
People and the world of work
X
during grades 1 to 43)
Art and Culture
Music   
44)

obligatory in grades 1 and 2
Fine arts
People and their health
Physical education 8
obligatory in each grade
Health education
X
during grades 1 to 43)
Information and communication technology
4
during grades 1 to 4
Optional educational activities
85)
obligatory in grades 3 and 4
Cross-curricular themes
X
during grades 1 to 43)
Disposable teaching hours
266) fully in discretion of school head
Total compulsory number of teaching hours
132


X – the number of teaching hours is stipulated by the SEP

1) One of the foreign languages must be English.
2) Due to its nature, Geography is included in the list of fields of both educational areas – People and nature and People and society.
3) Content of educational area (field) has to be provided during this period, and the details are stipulated in the SEP.
4) The offer must be such that pupils on the basis of their own choice will have the opportunity to acquire the full range of content of at least one of the fields, including the content of the integrated topic, Art production and communication.
5) Teaching hours intended for optional subjects.
6) All teaching hours must be used. They are intended for implementation of cross-curricular themes, for inclusion of other subjects, for the school’s specialisation, for increasing the number of lessons for individual educational areas (fields).

All thematic fields of cross-curricular themes must be included but the depth at which they are taught is decided by the school head.

The number of lessons per week in each grade must be between 27 and 35. The minimum number of lessons per study is 132 lessons, although the school can increase it up to 140 lessons. Any lessons over and above the set 132 are not covered from the State Budget.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Framework Educational Programme for Secondary General Education


School Education Programme

A school develops the school education programme (SEP) on the basis of the Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education, or possibly framework Education Programme for Sports Training Secondary General Schools, and legislation in force. During this preparation, the pupils' needs and condition of the school have to be respected, the legal requirements of parents, possibly of the founder and of the region, have to be taken into consideration. The school head is responsible for the development of the SEP and its implementation, and teachers participate in the preparation of individual parts and take part in decision-making. The School Council (školská rada) gives its opinion on the proposed SEP and its implementation, and approves the way through which pupils are assessed. The content of the SEP and its conformity with the framework education programme (FEP) are evaluated by the Czech School Inspectorate. The SEP must be available to the public.

In addition to the identification data, every SEP has to contain:

  • characteristics of the school (capacity and equipment, educational staff, long-term projects, international cooperation, cooperation with parents and other subjects…)
  • characteristics of the SEP (the school's specialisation, a profile of the school leaver, organisation of enrolment proceedings and the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška), the educational strategy, description how the teaching of pupils with special educational needs or exceptionally gifted pupils will be ensured, integration of cross-curricular themes)
  • the  curriculum and the teaching programmes (educational content of subjects)
  • the rules for pupils' assessment and self-evaluation of the school

In the SEP, the school divides the content of education stated in the FEP into subjects and grades (teaching programmes) and works out the curriculum in detail. It is possible to integrate topics of individual study fields and cross-curricular themes, to divide them into more subjects or to link them. Apart from the standard approach, the curriculum can be taught in the form of seminars, courses, forums or projects. The obligatory numbers of teaching hours must be respected, although the school head has a relatively high number of  teaching hours at his/her disposal (20% of the total number of teaching hours), which enable the specialisation of the school or individual pupils.

The Manual for the Development of School Educational Programme of Secondary General Schools (gymnázia) was published in 2007. To support the development of the SEPs, the web page was created. Among others, it is possible to find the experience from pilot schools there. A methodical internet portal is intended primarily for the support of teaching. It offers inspiration to the teachers and enables them to share their experience and results with other colleagues.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Framework Educational Programme for Secondary General Education

A Manual for the Development of School Educational Programme of Secondary General Schools


Language Education

Verification of the pilot version of the school educational programme which was created on the basis of the Framework Educational Programme for Bilingual General Secondary Schools from 2007 has been taking place at the bilingual six-year secondary general schools (dvojjazyčná gymnázia) (CLIL type). On the basis of the Government regulation on the system of fields a new educational field “Bilingual General Secondary School” has been introduced, which will replace previous one; pupils will enter the first year of education from 1 September 2016. Teaching will be carried out according to the new Framework Educational Programme. For details see the section on Bilingual General Secondary Schools – New Field, New Framework Educational Programme in the Chapter 14 on Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments. The Framework Educational Programme is valid for all six years of the study, it also includes the basic education provided in the first two years of study. During the initial two years, the foreign language teaching is intensive – 10 hours per week, at minimum; in the next four years, at least a half of the total number of subjects is taught in a chosen language (English, German, French, Spanish and Italian). Education in a foreign language leads to the competence level C1 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Pupils learn also another language; the attainment of the competence level B1 is required. See also the website of the National Institute for Education (in Czech).

Under the new Education Act which came into force in 2005, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports can authorize any school (based on the application) to teach selected subjects in a foreign language in all grades if personnel and other conditions are fulfilled. Currently, 48 upper secondary schools are awarded this authorization (including schools which provide professional courses). Specific measures were approved and concrete initiatives have been realized – grant programmes, to support the language education of pupils. Their list can be found in the part on Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education, in the section on Language Education.

Pieces of information about the position of the language education in Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education (and also in the Framework Education Programme for Sports Training Secondary General Schools) are stated in the section The Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education. The required level of competences attained in the first foreign language is B2, for additional foreign languages the level B1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is required.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Framework Educational Programme for Secondary General Education

Framework Educational Programme for Bilingual Secondary General School


Vocational education

In the period between 2007 and 2010, the framework education programmes (FEPs) for particular vocational fields of education were gradually introduced. In 2012, another 4 FEPs were introduced. Based on these documents, the schools created the school education programmes (SEPs) and began to teach according to them starting with the first grades, two years after the publication of the given FEP at the latest. In the school year 2012/2013 the teaching according to the SEP took place in the majority of fields (at least in the first grades).

The development of the FEP is closely connected to the reform of the system of fields. The number of fields was significantly reduced (for example: The original 90 educational fields focused on individual aspects of business and management or different economic sectors were replaced by one field – Economy and business). During this reduction, the links between the fields and the labour market as well as the National Qualifications Framework (see chapter National Qualifications Framework) were taken into account. The new fields have wider specialization and there is one FEP prepared for each of them. The schools can profile themselves and can create more specializations within the given field in the SEP.


The study fields are subdivided into several categories:

Courses of the secondary education with the school-leaving examination (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou) (ISCED 354) include: 

  • M category – traditional vocational courses completed by the school-leaving examination
  • the M category includes also courses of the lyceum branch, which provide vocational education with higher proportion of general education and prepare primarily to tertiary education in given specialisation (Technical Lyceum, Economics Lyceum, Pedagogical Lyceum, Health Care Lyceum, Science Lyceum and Combined Lyceum)
  • L category – courses, where practical training is part of the education

Courses of the secondary education with the apprenticeship certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem) (ISCED 353) include:

  • H category – three-year vocational courses
  • E category – less demanding two- or three-year vocational courses intended primarily for pupils with a health disability or disadvantage (for example with mild mental disability)

Courses of the secondary education (střední vzdělání) include:


Legislation and Bibliography:

Government Regulation on the System of Fields of Studies

Education Act

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education


Framework Education Programmes

Framework education programmes (FEPs) set:

  • objectives of secondary vocational education, key competencies, vocational competencies and job opportunities for school leavers
  • curricular frameworks for individual educational areas
  • framework curriculum timetable
  • cross-curricular themes
  • rules for the development of school education programme (SEP)
  • basic conditions of the provision of the educational programme (material, personal and organisational conditions and conditions of occupational safety and health protection during the educational activities)
  • conditions of education of pupils with special educational needs and exceptionally gifted pupils
  • application of the FEPs into the adult education

The FEPs set the following key competences of a school leaver:

  • learning competencies
  • problem solving competencies
  • communication competencies
  • social and personal competencies
  • civic competencies and cultural awareness
  • competencies required to enter the labour market and carry out business
  • mathematical competencies
  • competencies to use ICT and the ability to work with information

Also vocational competencies of a school leaver are set. They express the professional profile of a school leaver and his/her capability to carry out a profession. The competencies are specific for each field with some common competencies related to work (occupational safety, economical and ecological behaviour etc.). 

List of educational areas:

  • language education and communication (in the Czech language and in a foreign language)
  • humanity and social education
  • science education (physics, chemistry, biology and ecology)
  • mathematical education
  • aesthetic education
  • education for health (including physical education)
  • education in information and communication technologies
  • economic education
  • specific vocational education (depending on the field of study)

The obligatory content of education and required outcomes of education are set for every educational area, which can include several educational contents.

The framework curriculum timetable of the content of education sets the total number of lessons of individual educational areas per study. A part of the time is disposable. The time for the work practice (or apprenticeship practice or practical training) is also set.

According to the Analysis of School Educational Programmes – 2007, the general component of education in the newly created SEPs for the courses with the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška) (including ICT and economic subjects for non-economic courses) makes up an average of 60% of the curriculum for courses of the M category. The highest proportion of the general component is in lyceum courses (77%). On the other hand, for art fields it is only 34–35%, although the total number of lessons of these courses is higher. For courses of the category L, the general component of education makes up 56%. The time for work practice, apprenticeship practice or practical training is not included in the above mentioned data.

In the apprenticeship courses with the apprenticeship certificate (výuční list), the general component of education in the newly created school education programmes (including ICT and economic subjects for non-economic courses) makes up 34% for the three-year courses and only 19% for the two-year courses of category E. The practical training is included in the data.

The way the cross-curricular themes are included in instruction is set by the SEP. All the following themes must be included:

  • Citizen in a democratic society
  • People and the environment
  • People and the world of work
  • Information and communication technologies


Legislation and Bibliography:

Analysis of School Educational Programmes – 2007

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education


School Education Programmes

The school education programme (SEP) must be prepared on the basis of the FEP and relevant legislation. The responsibility for its creation and implementation lies with the school head. The SEP must be available to the public. A school can prepare a separate SEP for each form of education (for day and other forms) or individual programmes can be included in the same document. On the basis of one FEP a school may prepare several SEPs for different specialisations.

In addition to the identification data the SEP includes

  • the school leavers' profile
  • the characteristics of SEP (the overall conception, the organisation of instruction, implementation of practical training, key competencies and cross-curricular themes, other and out-of-school activities, conditions of enrolment proceedings, the form of the final examination (závěrečná zkouška) and/or profile part of the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška) and approaches to education of pupils with special educational needs and exceptionally gifted pupils)
  • the timetable and an overview of distribution of the content of education
  • the teaching programmes or educational modules

The Manual for Development of SEPs in upper secondary vocational schools was published in 2007. In 2012, the methodology Modular Planning of the School Education Programmes in the Vocational Education (Modulární projektování školních vzdělávacích programů v odborném vzdělávání) and the two-volume methodological handbook Cross-sectional Topics in Education of Pupils of Vocational Schools (Průřezová témata ve výuce žáků odborných škol) were published, also another supporting materials are being published. 


Legislation and Bibliography:

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education

Manual for Development of School Educational Programmes in Upper Secondary Vocational Schools

Modular Developing of the School Education Programmes in Vocational Education

Cross-curricular Themes in Education of Pupils of Vocational Schools


Language Education

In the framework educational programmes (FEP) for courses of upper secondary education (střední vzdělání) and courses E of upper secondary education with the apprenticeship certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem), inclusion of the foreign language into the SEP is not compulsory, it is within the authority of the school. If the school includes the foreign language in the SEP, the time for its instruction should be at least two lessons per week. The level of the required knowledge is basic, that is to say on the level A1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

The FEPs for the courses H of upper secondary education with the apprenticeship certificate and for the courses of upper secondary education with the school-leaving examination (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou) lay down the compulsory instruction of one foreign language. In the courses aimed at regular communication with a customer (tourism, gastronomy etc.), and in the courses of lyceum the instruction of two foreign languages is required. It is recommended to include another foreign language in other courses of instruction, but its inclusion is fully in the competence of the school. The level of the acquired competences in the courses of upper secondary education with the apprenticeship certificate is set for the first foreign language on the minimum level A2+, for another foreign language on the level A1+ according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. For the courses of upper secondary education with the school-leaving examination, the level of acquired competences is set for the first foreign language on the minimum level B1 and for another foreign language on the level A2. 

It is recommended to work with multimedia educational programmes and the internet, to create a favourable school environment, to develop and to take advantage of the offered European programmes to support the instruction of foreign languages. It is also useful to integrate the technical language into the instruction, for example to create conditions for the partial instruction of the topical units of the selected subjects in the foreign language, to encourage pupils to participate in the projects and competitions and to make contacts and start cooperation among schools in one’s own country and abroad. It is recommended to organize technical language stays and internships to motivate pupils to learn foreign languages, for their personal experience and for their learning about life in the multicultural society. The school creates conditions for motivation and creation of the European Language Portfolio and by this also supports the positive approach of pupils towards the foreign languages acquisition. 

In 2012, the National Institute of Education issued the handbook CLIL in education – how to include the foreign language into instruction.

Some specific measures were adopted to support the language education of pupils and concrete initiatives are being implemented – so called grant programmes. Their list can be found in the part Teaching and Learning in the Single Structure Education, section Language Education.

Currently 48 upper secondary schools have the permission for foreign language instruction in selected subjects (mostly in English, but also in French, German, Spanish, Italian and Russian). See section on Language Education in General Education.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education


Example Framework Curriculum Timetables

Example Curriculum Timetable of a Course of Upper Secondary Education with the School-leaving Examination according to FEP

Example curriculum timetable of a course n. 2641M01 Electrotechnics

Duration and form of education: 4 years, day form

Educational Areas and Contents
Minimum number of teaching hours during the study
Weekly
Total
Language education and communication
-    Czech language
-    Foreign language

5
160
10
320
Humanity and social education
5 160
Science education 6 192
Mathematical education 12 384
Aesthetic education
5 160
Education for health 8 256
Education in information and communication technologies 6 192
Economic education
3 96
Basics of Electrotechnics
6 192
Electrotechnics
16 512
Electrotechnical measuring 8 256
Technical drawing 3 96
Disposable teaching hours 35 1 120
Total
128 4 096

The minimum number of teaching hours in individual years is 29.

Notes:

  1. The framework curriculum timetable of the educational content is the basis for the development of the SEP. The subjects created on the basis of the educational areas and contents set by the FEP are included into the SEP timetable. The educational areas and contents and the minimum number of teaching hours are binding; the observance of these in the SEP must be demonstrable. 
  2. Disposable teaching hours are intended for profiling of the SEP, implementing the cross-curricular themes, strengthening of the time allocation to individual educational areas and contents, supporting the interest orientation of pupils, implementing of teaching of another foreign language. 
  3. The minimum number of teaching hours during the whole study is 128, the maximum number is 140. 
  4. Science education in the SEP is based on the A variant of the physics component and B variant of the chemistry component of the FEP. For the reason of specific needs of the course, the minimum number of weekly teaching hours for the physics component, set by the FEP, is 3. 
  5. To make the education successful, it is necessary to set up conditions for the acquirement of required practical skills and activities in the form of exercises (in laboratories, workshops, special classrooms, simulated companies, etc.), apprenticeship practice and work practice. Pupils can be divided into groups for the exercises during the apprenticeship practice and practical training, mainly for the reason of safety and health protection at work and sanitary requirements according to valid regulations. Content of practical activities is based on the educational areas and contents of the framework education programme. 
  6. The average number of lessons in one class per week with regards to the necessary division of classes into groups is given by 52.04 for each grade. The stated figure of the indicator H is set as minimal in the process of setting the amount of financial means allocated according to the Decree on Regional per capita amounts.
  7. Work practice in the minimum extent of 4 weeks during the whole education must be included in the SEP. Work practice is organised in accordance with valid legal regulations. Apart from that, the school will include apprenticeship practice in the framework of the educational content of Electrotechnics, in the minimum extent of 8 weeks during the whole education. 
  8. Physical education must be included in every grade in the minimum extent of 2 lessons a week during the whole education. Including other sports and relaxation activities to support healthy development of pupils is recommended. 
  9. The school provides conditions for improving the quality of language skills of pupils and for teaching of other foreign languages. 


Example Framework Curriculum Timetable of a Course of Upper Secondary Education with the Apprenticeship Certificate

Example framework curriculum timetable of a course n. 2351H01 Mechanic (Strojní mechanik) according to the FEP.


Duration and form of education: 3 years, day form
Educational Areas and Contents
Minimum number of teaching hours during the study
Weekly
Total
Language education and communication


-    Czech language
3
96
-    Foreign language
6
192
Humanity and social education
3 96
Science education 4 128
Mathematical education 5 160
Aesthetic education
2 64
Education for health 3 96
Education in information and communication technologies 3
96
Economic education 2 64
Mechanical products
8 256
Producing, servicing and operation of mechanical products
39
1 248
Disposable teaching hours 18 576
Total 96 3 072

The minimum number of teaching hours in individual grades is 29.

Notes:

  1. The framework curriculum timetable of the educational content is the basis for the development of the SEP. The subjects created on the basis of the educational areas and contents set by the FEP are included into the SEP timetable. Set educational areas and contents and the minimum number of teaching hours are binding; the observance of these in the SEP must be demonstrable. The pupil – teacher of practical training ratio is set by a Government regulation. 
  2. Disposable teaching hours are intended for profiling of the SEP, implementing the cross-curricular themes, strengthening of the time allocation to individual educational areas and contents, supporting the interest orientation of pupils, implementing of another foreign language teaching. 
  3. The minimum number of teaching hours during the whole study is 96, the maximum number is 105. 
  4. For the reason of specific needs of the course, the minimum number of weekly teaching hours for the physics component of science education, set by the FEP, is 2. 
  5. To make the education successful, it is necessary to set up conditions for acquirement of required practical skills and activities in the form of exercises (in laboratories, workshops, special classrooms, simulated companies, etc.) and practical training. Pupils can be divided into groups for the exercises and practical training, especially for the reason of safety and health protection at work and sanitary requirements according to valid regulations. The pupil – teacher of practical training ratio is set by a Government regulation. 
  6. The average number of lessons in one class per week with regard to the necessary division of classes into groups of education is given by 20.9 in the theoretical part for every grade; in the practical part by 30.43 for every grade. The stated figure of the indicator H is set as minimal in the process of setting the amount of financial means allocated according to the Sections 160-162 of the Education Act and the Decree No. 492/2005 Coll., on Regional per capita amounts
  7. The content of practical activities is based on the educational areas and contents of the FEP, namely from the “Producing, servicing and operation of mechanical products” content. The minimum extent of practical activities in the form of practical training must be 35 weekly hours during the whole education. 
  8. In the SEP, physical education must be included in every grade. Including other sports and relaxation activities to support healthy development of pupils is recommended. In case the education is organised in the way of weekly rotation of theoretical teaching and practical training, the number of physical education lessons must not go under 2 lessons in the week of theoretical teaching. In case of both theoretical teaching and practical training within one week, the number of physical education lessons is 2. Including suitable physical activities compensating the one-side physical load of pupils during the practical training is also advisable. 
  9. The school provides conditions for improving the quality of language skills of pupils and for teaching of other foreign languages according to the interest and skills of pupils. 
  10. Instruction aimed at acquirement of the welding certificate is carried out in welding schools according to the ČSN norm in accordance with rules of the authorised body in the extent of a basic welding course. Acquirement of relevant certificates is not the condition for sitting the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška).

Teaching Methods and Materials

The education is theoretical and practical, whereas in vocational courses, mainly in those designated as upper secondary education with the apprenticeship certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem), practical education forms an essential part of education.

According to the Education Act, one of the principles of education is the wide use of effective modern teaching methods and approaches to education. Framework education programmes can set out basic methods and teaching requirements; however the choice of actual educational methods depends on a school and a teacher. Schools have to describe the total educational concept and educational strategy of individual subjects/modules in their school education programmes. The school education programme can be composed as a standard one (classic), which means that it is based on the educational subjects and curriculum, or in the case of the vocational education also as a modular one. The use of modules is suitable mainly in the case if the school would like to contribute to individualization of the educational path of pupils and to offer different educational paths, forms and possibilities. The cross-sectional topics are also included into the educational programmes. For more information, see the previous sections.

Some of the theoretical subjects are usually taught in laboratories. Rapid Polling surveys from 2005, in which more than one third of schools participated, found that more than 90% of upper secondary schools (střední školy) have an ICT laboratory, over 80% a foreign language laboratory, and over half of schools have laboratories for biology, chemistry and physics.

The practical element of instruction includes exercises, practical training, apprenticeship practice, work practice, artistic practice and sports training. It takes place at school or at the school special purpose facility (středisko praktického vyučování) (alternatively in another type of school facility) or at the workplaces of natural persons or legal entities. It is organised for relatively small groups of pupils (see the part on Organisation of Upper Secondary Education).

Exercises are included in the basic subjects. It enhances vocational education and training of pupils. The exercises are provided in special classrooms, laboratories and workrooms or workplaces. During such exercises the class is divided into groups. Exercise can also be included in some theoretical subjects.

Practical training is based on acquisition of basic skills, activities, and habits, on production of products, on performance of services, or realisation of work which has a material value (usually the education is organised in the way of weekly rotation of theoretical teaching and practical training). Apprenticeship training is carried out regularly within the instruction, work or artistic practice is also carried out within the instruction, mainly in blocks and during whole weeks. 

The upper secondary schools may, in accordance with curricular documents, organise skiing trips, educational-training courses, sports courses or sight-seeing trips and other activities related to a school’s educational role.

Alternative education paths are more often applied at the compulsory level of education (at some multi-year general secondary schools). Some secondary schools use components of Waldorf pedagogy, two of which offer the Waldorf lyceum course.

The minimum material equipment for a school is set by curricular documents, the health and safety requirements are set by a relevant decree of the Ministry of Health.

There are no specific requirements as to teaching aids and the school head decides on their selection, which must however be adequate to the needs of pupils. In the Bulletin of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and on the Internet, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports publishes the List of textbooks and teaching texts approved by an approval clause on the basis of an assessment as to whether they comply with educational objectives stipulated in the Education Act, in framework education programmes and legal regulations. Schools may also use other textbooks and teaching texts unless these are contrary to these educational objectives. A school head decides on the use of textbooks and teaching texts, and the pupils cover the cost themselves. In 2007/08, almost all schools were equipped with computers, and the majority of these were connected to the Internet.

There are no regulations relating to pupils' homework


Legislation and Bibliography:

Decree on Sanitary Standards in Institutions and Facilities for Education of Children and Youth

Decree on Secondary Education and Education in Conservatoires

Education Act

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education