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Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The content of basic education is set by The Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE) and school educational programmes of individual schools. The Research Institute of Education in Prague was entrusted by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports  to develop the document (in 2011 the Research Institute of Education merged with other institutes into one instution, the National Institute for Education). FEP BE was approved by the Ministry of Education in 2005. It is binding for the basic schools (základní školy) and for the lower stage of the multi-year general secondary schools (víceletá gymnázia). The FEP BE specifies the objectives of basic education, the level of key competences which pupils should achieve, areas and fields of education, the content of education in general, the expected outcomes in periods, and a framework curriculum. It includes two annexes – one specifies the education of pupils with a mild mental disability and the other are the Standards for the Basic Education, which specify more closely the expected outcomes.

Schools drawn up their school educational programmes (SEP) on the basis of the FEP BE, in 2011/12 school year the teaching according to SEPs was binding for all schools in all years. SEPs set out the specific timetable and content of education – the teaching programmes. Among athers they also determine the conditions for education of pupils with special educational needs and exceptionally gifted pupils.

From 2016/17 the new Framework Educational Programme for Bilingual General Secondary School will be binding for bilingual six-year general secondary schools (dvojjazyčná gymnázia), see the section on Language Education in the Chapter 6 on Upper Secondary Education.

In 2010 Framework Educational Programme for the Dance Field (eight-year conservatoire) was approved, prepared with regard to the FEP BE. The schools had prepared their school educational programmes based of FEP BE and started to teach according to them from the 2012/13 school year at the latest. A large part of the number of hours for the educational areas is devoted to the arts education. The total number of hours and the number of hours per week thus markedly exceeds the number of hours at the second stage of basic school.

The content of education in preparatory classes (see the part on Education of Pupils with Special Educational Needs in the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance) is guided by The Framework Educational Programme for Pre-Primary Education (see the part on Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years in the Chapter 4 on Early Childhood Education and Care) and is a part of the school educational programme of the basic school.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education with Annexe Regulating Education of Pupils with Mental Disability

Framework Educational Programme for Bilingual General Secondary School

Framework Educational Programme for Preprimary Education

Framework Educational Programme for Dance Field



Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education

The Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE) defines the objectives of basic education and key competences a pupil should achieve at the end of education, and nine main educational areas (consisting of one or more educational fields), cross-curricular themes and complementary educational fields. The educational content is specified for every educational field, i.e. the recommended curriculum and expected outcomes: orientational at the end of the 3rd year and binding at the end of the 5th and 9th year. From this point of view the first stage is divided into first and second periods: years 1-3 and 4-5.

With effect from 1 September 2012, the Standards for basic education were included in the FEP BE  specifying more closely the expected outcomes, provisionally for the educational fields the Czech language, Maths and its applications and the Foreign language (English language); the standards for other fields  are being prepared. The Standards for basic education require the minimum target education, which is set down in the FEP BE. The Standards specify the content of expected outcomes of the FEP BE and set the minimum level managing, which all pupils must achieve. The Standards are made regardless of the ways and methods of verification. The annex for education of pupils with a mild mental disability is described in the section on Compulsory Education in the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance.

A revision of content of the FEP BE was made in 2013. Mainly educational fields Foreign Language and Mathematics and its applications were adapted; financial literacy (on the basis of the National Strategy for Financial Education) and other current topics: traffic education, human protection during the common risks and exceptional events, homeland defence, corruption, sexual and family education were supplemented.

The FEP BE also includes the framework timetable (see below). For particular educational areas (fields) the minimum total week number of hours is defined (in 45 min lessons), which is a summation of number of hours (weekly devoted to some educational area/field) of all years of a given stage. The FEP BE sets also number of disposable hours. The total compulsory time in a week is a summation of total week number of hours of all educational areas and disposable hours, it must be 118 hours for the first stage and 122 hours for the second stage of the basic shool (základní škola). For the minimum and maximum number of lessons in a week for particular years – see the section on Organisation of the school day and week.


Aims of basic education

Basic education is to help pupils to create and gradually develop key competences and provide them with a reliable foundation in general education focused especially on everyday life situations and practical behaviour. These aims should be achieved through:

  • enabling pupils to master learning strategies and motivate them for lifelong learning
  • stimulating pupils to creative thinking, logical reasoning and problem solving
  • leading pupils to versatile, effective and open communication
  • developing pupils' ability to cooperate and to respect the work and successes of themselves and others
  • preparing pupils to behave as independent, free and responsible personalities, asserting their rights and fulfilling their duties
  • creating pupils' needs to express positive feelings in their manners, behaviour, and living through life situations; develop their responsiveness and sensitive relationships with people, environment and nature
  • teaching pupils to develop and actively protect their physical, mental and social health and to be responsible for it
  • leading pupils to tolerance and considerateness towards other people, their cultures and spiritual values, and teach them to live together with others
  • helping pupils to recognize and develop their own capacities in accordance with real possibilities and to use these together with acquired knowledge and skills in decision making about their own life and vocational orientation


Key competences represent a summary of the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes and values important for the personal development and usefulness of every member of the society. Their choice and concept originate from values generally accepted in the society and from generally shared views as to which competences contribute to an individual's education, happy and successful life, and to strengthening civil society. The aim of education is to equip all pupils with a set of key competences on a level which is accessible for them, and to prepare them for further education and a useful life in the society.

In basic education, the following competences are considered to be the key ones:

  • learning
  • problem solving
  • communication
  • social and personal competence
  • citizenship
  • work


Framework Timetable 

Educational areas 
Educational fields 
Minimum number of hours
1st stage 
2nd stage
years 1-5
 years 6-91)
Language and language communication 
Czech language and literature 
35
15
Foreign language 
 9  12
Second foreign language
-
62)
Mathematics and its application 
20 15
Information and communication technology 
1 1
People and their world 
12 
-
People and society 
History 
-
11
Citizenship education 
People and nature  Physics  -   21
Chemistry
Biology  
Geography 
Art and culture  Music
12 10
Fine art  
People and health 
Health education   -   10
Physical education 
10
People and the world of work 
5  3
Cross-curricular themes  P  P
Disposable hours  
14 

24

(include 6 hours given for Second Foreign Language)

Total compulsory number of hours 
118 
122

 P = must be included at the given stage and disposable hours can be used

1) Valid also for lower years of multi-year general secondary schools (víceletá gymnázia).
2) The Second foreign language is a part of educational area Language and language communication from the 2012/13 school year. For more information see below.


Educational Areas

  • The educational area Language and language communication is composed of two educational fields. Czech language and literature must be taught in every year (at minimum 50 hours in total). A foreign language (English should preferably be offer to pupils) is compulsory from year 3, for at least 3 hours a week in every year (21 hours in total). It may be taught from year 1. Special legal regulations apply where the language of instruction is other language than Czech (see the section on Minorities in the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance). The Second foreign language is a part of educational area Language and language communication from the 2012/13 school year. According to their possibilities the school integrate at least 6 hours of the Second foreign language from year 8 at the latest. Due to the strengthening of the importance of foreign language teaching, the school must use 6 given disposable hours only for teaching of the Second foreign language, or in reasonable cases for improvement or development of Foreign language.
  • Mathematics and its applications is taught in every year (at minimum 35 hours in total).
  • Information and communication technology (ICT) is taught at the first stage as well as at the second stage (at minimum 2 hours in total).
  • The educational content of the educational area (field) 'People and their world' is implemented at first stage only, in every year (minimally 12 hours in total).
  • The educational area 'People and society' is composed of History and Citizenship education and the educational content is implemented at the second stage only, in every year, for a total of at least 11 hours.
  • The educational area 'People and nature' is composed of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Geography and the educational content is implemented at the second stage only, in every year, for a total of at least 21 hours.
  • Art and culture includes Music and Art and the educational content is implemented in every year (at least 22 hours in total).
  • The educational area 'People and health' includes Health education and Physical education. Health education is taught only at the second stage, at the first stage, the educational content of Health education is a component part of the educational area of People and their world. Physical education is taught at all years of basic education; the time allotment must not drop below 2 hours per week. The minimum number of hours for 'People and health' area is 10 hours at the first stage, 10 hours at the second stage, i.e. at least 20 hours in total.
  • The educational content of the educational area 'People and the world of work' is implemented at the first stage (in every year) as well as at the second stage, for a total of 8 hours.
  • The following cross-curricular themes must be taught at both first and second stage, although they need not be included in every year: Personal and social education, Education for democratic citizenship, Education towards thinking in the European and global context, Multicultural education, Environmental education, and Media studies.

Both in the first and in second stage a fixed number of disposable hours is specified (14 in the first stage, 24 in the second stage); use of these hours is fully at the discretion and responsibility of the school head, the use of all disposable hours in the SEP's curriculum timetable is binding. Disposable hours can be used:

  • to propose and implement optional educational content, which must follow the objectives of basic education and develop the key competences of the pupils
  • to implement cross-curricular themes
  • to expand the content of the educational field of Second Foreign Language for minimum 6 hours (at the latest from year 8) or to implement activities developing Foreign language for the same number of hours
  • to increase time for particular educational areas and fields beyond the minimum time allotment
  • to create time allotment to introduce other areas of compulsory education which help to complete the orientation of the school
  • to introduce complementary educational fields, which are not a compulsory part of basic education (e.g. Drama, Ethics, Film/Audiovisual Education, Dance and motor learning)
  • to increase the time for physical education in two successive years of the first stage, where compulsory swimming lessons are offered
  • to introduce teaching to support the education of pupils with special education needs

According to the Education Act, religion can be taught in compliance with the principles and objectives of education. Religion is taught as a non-compulsory subject at schools established by a municipality or a union of municipalities, if at least seven pupils of the school request religion lessons. Pupils from several years of one school or more schools may be combined in one class, as long as the number of pupils in one class does not exceed thirty.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education with Annexe Regulating Education of Pupils with Mental Disability

National Strategy for Financial Education

School Educational Programme

The school educational programme (SEP) divides the curriculum into particular years (or other compact parts e.g. modules) and into subjects and specifies syllabus. Whereas from one educational field, it is possible to form one or more subjects or the educational content of different fields can be integrated in an "integrated subject".


Fundamentals for Preparing the School Education Programme for Basic Education

The SEP:

  • is prepared in accordance with the FEP BE for the whole or part of the basic education period, i.e. for those years for which the school provides basic education
  • ensures equal access to basic education for all pupils in compulsory school attendance and takes into account their educational needs and abilities;
  • enables a differentiated and individualized approach to instruction for pupils with special educational needs and for exceptionally gifted pupils if education of those pupils requires so (see the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance)
  • creates the preconditions for realizing educational content with a view towards pupils' age-specific characteristics, thus helping to form and develop their key competencies
  • helps to fulfil the objectives of basic education as established by the school 's educational strategies, as well as the objectives of the educational area established by educational strategies at the level of subjects of instruction
  • is prepared in such a manner as to allow teachers to develop a creative working style and not to limit them in applying different methods or different time schedules based on the teachers' experience with effective instructional methods and their pupils' specific needs
  • is a relatively stable document and any eventual changes in its curriculum timetables and syllabi should not negatively affect pupils' education in a cycle already in progress
  • follows the prescribed structure


The prescribed structure is divided into six parts:

  • Identifying information
  • Characteristics of the school
  • Characteristics of the SEP
  • Curriculum timetable
  • Syllabus
  • Assessment of pupils


As a methodological support, the Manual for the Development of School Educational Programme of Basic Education was issued.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education with Annexe Regulating Education of Pupils with Mental Disability

Manual for the Development of School Educational Programme of Basic Education



Language Education

To support the language education, several specific measures were adopted and concrete iniciatives (grant programmes) are implemented.

  • According to the Guideline of the Minister of Education (2008), the basic school (základní škola) can be granted with the consent to teach selected subjects in a foreign language provided certain conditions are guaranteed, primarily tuition/instruction is delivered by qualified  teachers with minimum knowledge of the language (C1 according to the Common European Framework of reference), pupils/students or their parents (if pupils are under 18 years of age) need to agree, introduction of teaching in a foreign language (or languages) does not entitle the school to further financial resources, and some other conditions. In the 2013/14 school year, 47 schools are granted with this consent (the majority of schools teach selected subjects in English, a few in German and rarely in French). The range of the subjects is wide, the ICT, math and the subjects as drama, physical education, arts and music prevail.
  • Every year the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports announces the programmes/projects to support pupils-foreigners and national minorities, the Ministry of Education financed the translations to the Czech and two Roma languages of the Coucil of Europe materials supporting the education in Romani (for more see the section Minorities in the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance).
  • From 2016/17 the new Framework Educational Programme for Bilingual General Secondary School will be binding for bilingual six-year general secondary schools (dvojjazyčná gymnázia), see the section on Language Education in the Chapter 6 on Upper Secondary Education.
  • Every year the Ministry of Education allocates funds for the projects honoured by the European Language Label (for more see the section on Global and Intercultural Dimension in Curricular Development in the Chapter 13 on Mobility and Internationalisation). Its aim is to support new iniciatives in the area of teaching and learning foreign language and increase the awarness about them among specialists as well as general public. The prize is awarded to the projects realised by different institutions in formal as well as non-formal education of all age groups.
  • From 2010 to 2012 all schools outside the capital city Prague could apply for funds to support teaching of foreigner languages within the call of the Ministry of Education – EU Money to Schools. The project is fundedby the European Union.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

Foreign languages in the Subjects for the Second Stage of Basic Schools and Grades of Multi-year Secondary General Schools

Framework Educational Programme for Bilingual General Secondary School

Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR)

Teaching Methods and Materials

Teachers can choose their teaching methods according to their own strategy and the general policy of the school, in agreement with the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE).

Information and communication technology (ICT) is in common use within instruction.

The minimum material equipment for a school is set by the FEP BE, while the hygienic requirements for school rooms are regulated by the decree of the Ministry of Health.

There are no specific requirements as to teaching aids, which must however be adequate to the needs of pupils.The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports publishes in its Bulletin as well as at the website the List of textbooks and teaching texts approved by an approval clause on the basis of an assessment as to whether these comply with educational objectives stipulated in the Education Act, in the Framework Educational Programmes and legal regulations. Schools may also use other textbooks and teaching texts unless these are contrary to these educational objectives. A school head decides on the use of textbooks and teaching texts. Pupils are provided with free textbooks and teaching texts contained in the list of textbooks, and pupils of the first year of basic education and children included in preparatory classes are not required to return them. Pupils in the first year and children placed in preparatory classes are provided with free basic teaching aids to the value of CZK 200 (EUR 7; EUR/CZK 27.407 - 26 May 2015).


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Framework Educational Programme for Preprimary Education

Decree on Sanitary Standards in Institutions and Facilities for Education of Children and Youth

Regulation to Approval Clause to Textbooks and Teaching Texts