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Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Definition of the Target Group(s)

The Education Act does not use “health disability” category to define a pupil with special educational needs. A pupil with special educational needs is in the actual inclusive term a person that requires the provision of support measures to cover their educational possibilities or to assert or use their rights on an equal basis with the others. The educational support is ensured to all pupils who need it, regardless of the nature of their disabilities in both the inclusive conditions and the separate educational ones. The categories of “mental, physical, visual, hearing disabilities, developmental disorders of learning or behaviour, speech defects, autism, multiple disabilities” are only used in a context of having the possibility of setting up a school/class/department for pupils with a disability in question.

The Act also defines a target group of gifted and/or exceptionally gifted pupils and conditions of their education. The gifted and exceptionally gifted pupils should also have the opportunity to use support measures. An overview of support measures is in the annex to the decree on education of pupils with special educational needs and gifted pupils. The definition of a gifted or exceptionally gifted pupil is specified in a decree:” The exceptionally gifted pupil is a person whose ability spectrum reaches an extraordinary level along with high creativity in a broad field of activities and/or in particular intellectual spheres, motor, manual, art or social skills.

The gifted pupil is a pupil who, if appropriately supported, has a high level of cognitive abilities in one or more fields, in motor, manual, art or social skills as compared to their peers.”

Specific Support Measures

Education of Pupils with Special Educational Needs

The Act codifies the right to provide free education support with the help of supporting measures corresponding to education needs of these pupils. The support measures include necessary modifications in education and school services with respect to the health condition, cultural environment or other life conditions of the pupil.

The support measures are provided to pupils free of charge by the school or guidance and counselling centre.

It is guaranteed that education and school services are provided in structurally and technically adjusted spaces. The support measures cover a wide range of pedagogical, organizational and content modifications to education and provision of school services. They include strengthening of the education staff (one more teacher, teacher’s assistant, interpreter of the sign language, transcriber for the deaf), consulting assistance and support for school and school counselling facility, modifications to assessment, forms and methods of education, adjustment of entrance and final examinations, teaching subjects of special pedagogical care, additional special educational or pedagogical intervention, use of Braille, alternative communication forms, sign language, compensation aids and IC assistance techniques, extension of education time, education according to a plan of pedagogical support, education following an individual learning plan, fewer pupils in the class.

The support measures are divided into five stages according to financial and organizational demands and may be combined based on the pupil’s needs. A support measure of higher level can be used if the support measure of lower level is not sufficient.

The support measures are recommended by a consulting facility – pedagogical and psychological counselling centre – or special education centre (see Counselling in preschool and school education) based on professional judgment of the pupil’s education needs.

The support measures of the first stage are provided by schools without a recommendation of the school counselling facility, and the informed consent of the pupil´s /adult pupil´s legal guardian is not required. To support these pupils, a Plan of pedagogical support is established by the school.

To ensure requirements of the other stages of support measures and their provision, the informed consent of the pupil´s / adult pupil´s legal guardian is necessary. The guardian has also the right to check recommendations of support measures or investigations carried out by a consulting facility. A body set up by the Ministry of education, youth and sports is commissioned to check the recommendation. Schools may draw up an individual education plan for the pupil to support those pupils with more special education needs and for support measures 2 to 5.

Pupils with special education needs study following mainstream educational programmes, adjusting education conditions and employing support measures.

A plan of pedagogical support is drawn up following a pedagogical analysis of education needs of the pupil. It contains goals towards which the support is oriented, ways they can be achieved, evaluation of their fulfilment, and recommendation of further steps to support the pupil’s education success.

An individual education plan is drawn up following results of professional assessment of the pupil in a school counselling centre and determination of his/her special needs. It results from the school educational programme and is a binding document to ensure the pupil’s special education needs. It sets educational objectives of a pupil, modifications to organization and content of training, timing and contents distribution of subjects, form of specifying tasks, ways of assessment and classification, pedagogical methods, exam and final exam organization, etc. It describes the type and scope of special pedagogical and psychological support of the pupil, organization and the way the support and its provider are ensured (not only the institution but namely the staff member). It defines compensation and teaching aids, ICT equipment, textbooks, learning texts etc, fewer pupils in class, take on another teacher, a sign language interpreter or an additional worker in the class.

In 2015/2016, 5 % of pupils followed an individual education plan.

Pupils with serious mental disability follow a modified educational programme, which reflects their education needs. (For more details see Chapter: Separate special education, section Education content, subjects).

Basic education of pupils with special education needs can last ten years.

The school head can allow pupils with special educational needs, who have not attained basic education after compulsory school attendance, to continue basic education up to 20 years, or 26 years of age (for more details see Organization and  structure of educational programme,   section Compulsory school attendance).

The school head can allow pupils or students with special educational needs to extend upper secondary and higher professional education by a maximum of two school years.

Based on the recommendation of a school counselling facility an additional teacher may be taken on – a teaching assistant, who works in classes, departments and study groups where there is(are) a pupil(s) with special education needs. The teaching assistant is part of support measures that help integration of pupils with special education needs into the education process and activities in and outside the classroom. The assistant works also with the other pupils in the class/department/group following the instructions of the teacher.

To facilitate education of pupils with hearing disability, who are not able to hear and use spoken language, an interpreter of Czech sign language, or a speech transcriber for the deaf, are employed.

The interpreter translates correctly communications among participants in a clear and understandable way and in a communication system chosen by the pupil. The interpreter can also help in educational off-school activities.

The school provides pupils taught in the Czech sign language with parallel education in Czech written language; here the same methods are used as in teaching Czech as a foreign language.

Outputs of science subjects for pupils learning in the Czech sign language are set in this language and in written Czech.

A speech transcriber for the deaf is employed as a support measure if a pupil uses for communication the written form of the Czech language that is not the communication system of the other pupils in the class/department/group.

During education, the transcriber translates the spoken language into a written form in real time.

In classes, departments and study groups, where there is a pupil with special education needs, a personal assistant of this pupil may be employed with the school head’s consent and on a recommendation by the school guidance and counselling facility. The personal assistant is not an employee of the school. He works following the Act on social services and provides the pupil with social services, e.g. self-care, transport to school, and the like. The costs associated with the assistant’s work do not fall within the competence of the school resort. However, to help the pupil with self-care and mobility is among standard activities of the teacher’s assistant so it is covered as a support measure from the State budget free of charge according to the education act.

Education of gifted pupils

Gifted and exceptionally gifted pupils are guaranteed the right to get support measures to develop their talent and meet their education needs. Education of exceptionally gifted pupils is governed by separate chapters within framework education programmes; the school education programmes should be drawn up so as to create conditions for education of these pupils.

The support measures include particularly:

  • Output enlargement of the school educational programme – enlargement or enrichment of education content, imposing specific tasks, or engagement in special projects;
  • Accelerated learning – the school head may shift an exceptionally talented pupil to a higher grade without completing the previous grade after the pupil has passed exam before a three-member commission. The pupil is not given the report from the skipped year and reports of the following years inform which years have been skipped;
  • Enlarged education content beyond the scope set by an educational programme concerned /possibility of taking part in education in a higher grade/;
  • Fellowship education in another school of the same or different kind;
  • Education groups – the school head may make up groups for gifted pupils in which pupils from the same or different years study some subjects together;
  • Individual education plan – describes modification to education course and content;
  • Provision of didactic aids and technical equipment to develop  talent;
  • Psychological and pedagogical support.

Overview of support measures and overview of compensation and didactic aids divided into five stages, which can be granted from the State budget sources, including calculation of standard financial costs, is part (annex) of the decree on education of pupils with special education needs and of gifted pupils.

Education support and evaluation of a pupil’s talent and of education needs of gifted pupils, and working out support measures proposals, are provided by pedagogical and psychological counselling centres with the help of psychologists – methodologists for the care of gifted pupils.

If a child is corporally and mentally adequately mature, the school act offers them the opportunity to begin the school compulsory attendance earlier (see Organization and structure of education system, section Compulsory school attendance).

Education needs of gifted pupils are also met through establishing classes with extended education in some fields.

One of the ways to show and develop a pupil’s talent is a competition – knowledge and skill, art, sports and other contests - regional, nation-wide, organized in cooperation with academic and art communities.

Children can develop their talent and interest in art in basic art schools, which offer basic education in particular art fields (see Chapter Basic education, part Organizational variants, alternative structures).



Legislation and bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on education of pupils with special education needs and of gifted pupils

Decree on basic education

Decree on basic art education

Decree on pre-primary education