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Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Master's Non-structured Study Programmes 

Higher Education Act No. 111/1998 has introduced the structure of higher education (Bachelor’s study programmes, Master’s study programmes, Doctoral study programmes). The 2001 Amendment to this Act accelerated its implementation and since 1 January 2004 students of the first years could not be admitted to the “long” Master’s degree programmes; only the period of their accreditation has expired step by step. Non-structured Master’s degree programmes have gradually been replaced by Bachelor’s (ISCED 645) and follow-up Master’s study programmes (ISCED 747).

Where required by the nature of the study programme, a Master’s degree programme does not have to follow on from a Bachelor’s degree programme (ISCED 746). Thus, the standard length of study is 4-6 years. Usually are there 5 year programmes (300 ECTS), in the case of medicine, veterinary medicine and hygiene and arts, there are 6-year programmes (360 ECTS). About 10% of all students of Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes study in those programmes. The fields are:

  • medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine and hygiene, pharmacy
  • law and jurisprudence
  • some theological fields
  • some artistic fields
  • logopedics
  • primary teacher training

The same rules as for Bachelor’s degree programmes apply to admission of students (see Admission Requirements in the section Bachelor's). In case of art and primary teacher training, the talent examination can be part of the admission proceedings (for teachers, see the chapter Teachers and Education Staff, section Admission Requirements).

Transit throughout the studies, completion of study, teaching methods, etc. for non-structured Master’s degree programmes are the same as for studies and completion of studies in Master’s degree programmes following on Bachelor’s ones (see Second Cycle Programmes).

A Master’s degree programme finishes with a final state examination (státní závěrečná zkouška); the defence of a thesis is its part. Master's degree programme in the field of medicine (including dentistry) and veterinary medicine and hygiene are completed with advanced study examination (státní rigorózní zkouška). Internal regulations of higher education institutions set the maximum period of study (e.g. at the Charles University in Prague the standard period of study is prolonged by five years).

A higher education diploma (vysokoškolský diplom) and a supplement to the diploma (dodatek k diplomu) are documents confirming completion of studies. The level of education attained is ISCED 746.

Academic titles and procedures are the same as for „follow-up“ Master’s degree programmes; included in the table are also Master’s (non-structured) degree programmes in medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine and hygiene, which cannot be studied in a structured study programme.


An Overview of Higher Education Degrees in Master’s Non-structured Study Programmes

Programmes
Title
Abbreviation
Final state examination, including defence of a thesis     


in economy, technical sciences and technology, agriculture, forestry and military
inženýr (Engineer)
Ing.
in architecture inženýr architekt (Engineer of Architecture) 
Ing. arch.
in art1)
magistr umění (Master of Art) 
MgA.
in other fields (except for medicine, veterinary or hygiene)
magistr (Master) 
Mgr.
Advanced study examination


in medicine
doktor medicíny (Doctor of Medicine) 
MUDr.
in dentistry
doktor zubního lékařství (Dentist)
MDDr.
in veterinary medicine and hygiene
doktor veterinární medicíny (Doctor of Veterinary Sciences)
MVDr.

Note: All titles are used in front of the name.

1) For graduates of Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes in arts who were admitted without having completed upper secondary education with a school-leaving examination or tertiary professional education in conservatoire, the title is awarded after they have achieved this.


Graduates of “long” Master’s degree programmes as well as graduates of other Master’s degree programmes can be admitted to a doctoral programme (their graduates obtain the title Ph.D.).

Apart from this, after being awarded the title Magistr, graduates of a Master’s degree programme (similarly as graduates of structured programmes) can sit for an advanced study examination and be awarded the title (JUDr., PhDr., RNDr., PharmDr., ThDr., ThLic.). For more information, see part Second Cycle Programme, the section on Certification.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Higher Education Act


Tertiary Professional Schools

Tertiary professional education (vyšší odborné vzdělávání) takes place mostly at tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy, ISCED 655) and to a lesser extent in the two highest grades of conservatoires (konzervatoře, ISCED 554). For more information, see the part on Art Education.

Tertiary professional schools are included in tertiary education. They are regulated by the Education Act.

Tertiary professional schools were established to provide professionally-oriented non-university tertiary education, nevertheless since the very beginning they have been struggling with unclear function, status and relations within the education system and subsequently with characteristics (e.g. duration of study) that place them into a specific situation within the European context. From the Study on the National Qualification Framework for Tertiary Education: "Educational programmes of tertiary professional education do not meet the characteristics of a short cycle, so they can not be assigned to this category. Under the current legislation, completion of the programme of tertiary vocational education does not authorise the admission to study programmes of the second higher education cycle and thus, they cannot be in the position of the first cycle programmes." An attempt to define the role and the status of different streams in tertiary professional education better within the reform of higher education has not ended successfully and the sector – despite benefits for students and graduates – waits for clearing up its potential for the next development.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Study on the National Qualification Framework for Tertiary Education


Branches of Study

The structure of study fields at tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is set by a governmental decree after negotiation with the relevant central trade union bodies, employer’s associations acting in the territory of the whole country and within the regions. A 2004 governmental decree introduced a new structure of study fields in basic and secondary education and education at tertiary professional schools and linked these to vocational and study fields according to previous legislation. Study fields provided by tertiary professional schools have to be registered in the School Register. Education is organised on the basis of study programmes which are subject to accreditation of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (based on the view of the Accreditation Commission for Tertiary Professional Education).

The length of day form of tertiary professional education is three years including work practice; for medical disciplines, it is up to three and half years.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Government Regulation on the System of Fields of Studies in Basic, Upper Secondary and Tertiary Professional Education


Admission Requirements

A basic pre-condition for admission to education at tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is upper secondary education with a school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška), ISCED 344 or 354, confirmed by a school-leaving certificate.

Students are admitted on the basis of results of the admission procedure. The school head must publish the deadline for submission of an application form, the documents which are its component parts, dates when the admission procedure takes place and criteria for its evaluation, at least two months in advance.

The school head may decide whether the admission procedure will include an entrance examination and sets its content and form in accordance with the teaching and study documents for secondary education completed with a school-leaving examination. The entrance examination usually includes a written part and an interview. At some schools (pedagogical and art), talent examinations are included as well.

The school head notifies applicants of their admission or rejection by publishing the list of admitted applicants within seven days after the examination date or after setting the results of the admission procedure if the examination does not take place. If an applicant is not admitted to a course, she/he can file an appeal within 15 days of the day when the school head’s decision is delivered to them.

An applicant becomes a student of tertiary professional school by the date of enrollment to the education the latest date for registration is 31 October

Under the Education Act, the school head can accept students directly into higher years if their documents on previous education certify so, or if the applicant proves sufficient level of knowledge subsequently. Recognition of previous education in not set down in a systematic way and articulation of the Act deals mainly with formal, in limited cases with non-formal education. 

The school head decides on the number of students admitted in accordance with the capacity set for the school on its registration in the School Register and in accordance with the long-term objectives of individual regions. The law states that age cannot be a barrier to admission to studies.

Information on tuition fees are included in the part Higher Education Funding.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act



Curriculum

Tertiary professional education in each educational area at individual tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is organised in accordance with an accredited educational programme (for information on accreditation, see the chapter Quality Assurance, section Quality Assurance in Higher Education).

The educational programme specifies in particular:

  • the concrete objectives of education
  • the length and the form of education
  • content of education and its organisation
  • the profile of graduates of the educational programme concerned
  • the language of instruction
  • conditions of the course of education, and the manner in which education is completed
  • conditions for the education of students with special educational needs
  • professional conditions for teaching, conditions for work safety and health, and health protection conditions for persons applying for education

Instruction of at least some modules/subjects in a foreign language is not common; it could also be due to the poorer involvement of tertiary professional schools in international mobility at the European level. In the Erasmus+ for higher education the mobility is also limited by a very restricted access to corresponding sources.  The participation is limited by the awarding of the so called Erasmus University Charter. A large number of tertiary professional school have either not met the criteria to obtain this document or have not even asked for it.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Tertiary Professional Education

Tertiary Professional Schools


Teaching Methods 

Tertiary professional education incorporates theoretical and practical preparation.

Theoretical preparation is provided in accordance with the accredited educational programme in the forms of:

  • lectures
  • seminars
  • consultations
  • exercises
  • field trips

Seminars and exercises take place at schools.


Practical preparation is organised in the form of:

  • practical education at schools
  • work practice at workplaces

See also the chapter Educational Support and Guidance.


The number of students in a study group is between 10 and 40 at the beginning of their studies in the first year (in arts fields, the minimum number of students is 6). In accordance with the accredited educational programme, it is possible to divide study groups into sub-groups or to join study groups and sub-groups for lessons in certain subjects.

The range of teaching aids and equipment is the responsibility of the tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola).

The work practice at a workplace is a considerable feature which supports employability and success in the labour market of graduates of tertiary professional education. Often is it designed as continuous, lasting several months or at least several weeks. Health schools distribute the disposable hours for gaining practical experience (set by international standards in many health fields) in a continuous block or in regular week practices.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Tertiary Professional Education



Progression of Students 

A student who has successfully met conditions specified by the accredited educational programme for a relevant level proceeds to a higher level. Despite many discussions and declarations, it can be seen that most tertiary professional schools have not started to introduce a credit system, which often does not have a practical use due to the limited number of students. Legislative limits or their understanding plays also a part in it.

Examinations may be repeated twice. In the case of a second resit, an examination is organised in front of the examining board and it is also used if there are any doubts about the correctness of the student’s assessment. This form of examination can also be employed in the case of comparative tests and in cases defined by the accredited educational programme. An examination in front of an examining board takes place on the date determined by the school head, who also nominates the examining board.

Students can transfer to another tertiary professional school during the course of their studies, change their field of education, interrupt their studies, or repeat a year, and are entitled to recognition of their previous education upon a written request.

The school head may interrupt schooling of a student for a period of not more than two years. For this period, the student ceases to be a student of the relevant tertiary professional school. After the specified time elapses, students continue to study in the same year in which they interrupted their studies.

With the prior consent of the school head, the student may continue in his/her studies in an upper year if he/she demonstrates corresponding knowledge and practical skills and the manner in which these have been achieved.

Education at tertiary professional schools may take various study forms, all of which are equal (for more information, see the section on Organisational Variation).

The 2004 Amendment to the Higher Education Act made the transition from the tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) to higher education institutions (vysoké školy) easier. Higher education institutions are free to specify different admission conditions for applicants who have completed a degree programme or a part of the programme at a tertiary professional school or for those who are studying the same programme. In such cases, students need not study the entire Bachelor’s programme from the beginning.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Tertiary Professional Education



Employability 

One of the goals stated in the Education Act is: “The tertiary professional education develops and broadens the knowledge and skills of a student acquired during secondary education and provides general and vocational education as well as practical training for the execution of demanding activities.”

Therefore, the practical part of the study is very important.
The application for the accreditation of the educational programme must include a proposal of an educational programme. It is stated in the ministerial document - Formal framework for the assessment of educational programmes of tertiary professional education - that this proposal among others contains “the content of the subject including practical training; and a proposal which states natural persons or legal entities and their workplace where the specialised practice is to take place”. Although there is no specific number of practical training set by the Ministry the Accreditation Commission assesses the range of practical training with respect to the graduate profile defined for each educational programme of the tertiary professional school. The exception is health-care and sanitary educational programmes where obligatory number of practical training is set by law (The Decree No. 39/2005 on the minimal requirements for educational programmes in non-medical professions). For accreditation of the health disciplines programmes also the accreditation by the Ministry of Health is necessary. 

There is no formal requirement for employers to be involved in tertiary professional education. However, it is stated in the Education Act that a member of the Examining Board established for the final Absolutorium examination can be an expert from the practice.

The unemployment rate of graduates of tertiary professional education was 10.2 % in April 2014. Compared to 2013 there was an annual decrease in the unemployment rate by 1.6 percentage points.  This education category is quite vulnerable to fluctuations in unemployment due to the lower share of graduates in the individual fields of study.


Legislation and Bibliography:

The Unemployment of Graduates with Upper Secondary and Tertiary Professional Education - 2014

Education Act

Formal Framework for the Assessment of Educational Programmes of Tertiary Professional Education

The Decree on the Minimal Requirements for Acquiring Professional Competencies for Non-medical Professions

Student Assessment 

Students are assessed after each relevant term. Subjects or other comprehensive parts of the syllabus on the basis of which a student takes an examination are specified by the accredited educational programme.


Forms of assessment

  • continuous assessment
  • credits
  • classified credits
  • examinations


Continuous assessment can take place during seminars, practice, practical education, work practice, and excursions. Continuous assessment primarily takes the form of questions, written work, tests, individual assignments, and term papers. The results of interim assessment can be taken into account and influence the final examination.

A credit is given when all requirements defined in the subject curriculum are met. The evidence of given credits are recorded in the student’s credit book, with the word započteno (credit granted).


Classified Credit and Examination

A classified credit also evaluates and classifies how a student has met the requirements of the credit. A classified credit and an examination can be:

  • oral
  • written
  • practical
  • combined

The results of a classified credit or an examination are marked as follows:

  • excellent
  • very good
  • good
  • failed

The results of a classified credit and of an examination are recorded in these terms in the student’s credit book.

Assessment and classification is carried out in each subject by the teacher, except for the case of a graduate examination which has to be taken in front of an examination board.

Some tertiary professional schools also use credit systems which express the students’ study load. See the section Progression of Students.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Tertiary Professional Education



Certification 

Studies end with a graduate examination (absolutorium). After successful passing the graduate examination, the graduate of a tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola) receives a graduation certificate and a graduate diploma upon completion of the tertiary professional school. The certificates issued according to the new decree on some certificates on education will newly include the level of the European Qualification Framework (EQF). The graduates are awarded the title diploma specialist (diplomovaný specialista, DiS.) which is written behind their names. Successful completion of the final level of studies is the pre-condition for taking a graduate examination.


Parts of the Graduate Examination

The graduate examination is a professional examination consisting of:

  • an exam in vocational subjects
  • an exam in a foreign language
  • a defence of a graduate thesis

The examination in vocational subjects may cover up to 3 vocational subjects. A proposed educational programme submitted for accreditation has to include specification of subjects which will be part of the graduate examination.


Terms

The school head announces at least one regular date for a graduate examination in the school year. A student may resit the graduate examination or repeat the graduate thesis only twice on the date determined by the examination board. In case the student excuses himself/herself in due term, he/she is entitled to an examination on an alternative date determined by the school head.


Examination Board

The graduate examination is a public examination, except for the examination board’s discussions about student evaluations. Practical examinations are not public in cases when it is necessary (i.e. occupational safety or protection of patients’ privacy in medical disciplines). The exams take place in front of a board whose chairperson is appointed by a regional authority and other members are appointed by the school head. The Chair, the Vice-Chair and the supervising teacher of a study group are permanent members. A teacher of the relevant subject, a teacher who also teaches the same subject but is not a teacher of students being examined, a supervisor of the graduate thesis, and a critical opponent are other members.


Assessment

The assessment scale used in the graduate examination consists of four levels:

  • excellent
  • very good
  • good
  • fail

The overall assessment is on a three-point scale

  • pass with excellence
  • pass
  • fail

The overall assessment of the graduate examination includes marks for the examination in specialised subjects and in a foreign language, and of the defence of the thesis. The graduate paper may be elaborated and defended by several students at the same time. But they are assessed individually. The overall assessment of a student’s performance during the graduate examination, along with the assessment of the individual examinations, is announced to the student on the same day he/she took the graduate examination.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Tertiary Professional Education



Organisational Variation 

Education at tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is organised on the basis of following forms of education:

  • day form
  • evening form
  • distance form
  • e-learning
  • combined forms of education

For more information, see Vocational Education, the section School-based Education). Education attained in all forms of education is equal.

Distance, evening, e-learning, or combined forms of education can be up to one year longer than the day form of study.


Tertiary professional schools can co-operate with higher education institutions (vysoké školy), see Branches of Study in the section Bachelor.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act