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Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

 
Demographic Situation

The Czech Republic has an area of 78 866 sq. km and a population of 10 538 275 (31 December 2014). The country is characterised by a high number of usually small municipalities and a relatively even distribution of population. The capital (Prague) has 1 million 259 thousand inhabitants and there are 4 other cities with a population of over 100 thousand.

Demographic development Demographic development in the post-war period was uneven. This was largely due to government measures aimed at increasing the birth rate, e.g. by giving preferential treatment in the allocation of flats to families with children, by extending the length of the maternity leave period, by offering favourable loans to newly married couples.

After 1989 the demographic processes were brought into line with the West European pattern: life expectancy has increased, the birth rate has fallen, the ages at marriage and the age of women at the birth of their first child have risen. New methods of contraception were made available to women. In 1996 the total fertility rate (average number of children per woman) fell below 1.2, from a level of 1.9 in 1990. It was not until 2004 that fertility exceeded 1.2 children per woman and the number of children born rose to over 100 thousand. This increase in fertility and natality was primarily due to the fact that large 70's cohorts reached reproductive age. In 2008t 119 842 children were born and the fertility rate reached the value 1.5. Even in the years 2009 and 2010 the fertility rate remained 1.49 of children per woman. After slight  decrease of  fertility rate there has been an increase and it reached  a value of  1.53 in 2014. The age of woman at birth is constantly increasing. The proportion of births outside marriage is significantly increasing as well (it was 46.7 % in 2014).

Impact on education

Irregularity of  demographic development results in fluctuations of  numbers of pupils / students at different educational levels which may cause capacity problems in schools. The decrease in fertility in the 1990s has led to reduced numbers of pupils at the upper secondary schools (střední školy) today and it newly has become apparent  at higher education level. At the basic schools (základní školy) the decline has stopped and the number of children is expected to rise in the following years. At the level of nursery schools (mateřské školy) more places are needed for children born in recent years.

Currently, the capacities of nursery schools are insufficient and a large number of requests by parents on placing their children in the nursery school is rejected (for the number of rejected requests please see the section on Statistics). This is also associated with difficulties in reconciling work and family life. The situation for parents is further made more difficult by a lack of opportunities to work part-time. The proportion of part-time jobs on the labour market is considerably below the EU average (in CR 10 %, EU 33 % women in 2014). See also the sections on Geographical Accessibility in early childhood education and care – children under 2-3 years and children over 2-3 years.

Demographic population ageing The Czech Republic, like some other European countries, is facing demographic population ageing. In 2014, the pre-productive population part (0-14 years) represented 15.2 %, the productive part (15-59 years) 60.1% and the post-productive (60 years and more) 24.7 % of the total population. According to the development forecast, the population will be ageing mainly due to higher age groups, i.e. the number of elderly people will increase while the proportion of the productive part of population will decrease. According to the population development prognosis, the proportion of the post-productive part of the population will reach 30.5 % in the years around 2060. In 2053, there should be one person of post-productive age per 1.4 persons of productive age; based on the prognosis in the years to follow, this ratio is not expected to decrease.

Foreigners The proportion of foreigners with residence permits in the Czech Republic was 4 % of the population in 2014. Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, and Russians are the largest groups.


Distribution of the population by age

Population
2000
2005 2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Total
10 232 027 10 251 079 10 532 770 10 505 445
10 516 125
10 512 419
10 538 275
0–2
265 950
294 241 357 080
349 427
337 342
325 254
327 807
3–5 274 203 274 423
326 341 350 029
362 311
363 968
350 777
6–9
603 697
454 532 471 911 480 495
497 900
522 729
551 695
11–14
518 190 478 135 362 810 361 290
362 311
365 504
370 766
15–19
685 483
653 519 582 650
541 105
510 265
479 874
463 083
20–24 851 779 698 533 692 009 671 461
660 086
645 014
623 989
25–64 5 622 083
5 941 305 6 104 143 6 050 201
6 017 860
5 984 532
5 969 752
65+ 1 410 642
1 456 391 1 635 826 1 701 436
1 767 618
1 825 544
1 880 406

Note: As of 31 December of a given year.

Source: Czech Statistical Office


Vital statistics


2000
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Life expectancy of men at birth
71,65 72.88
73.45 73.67 73.96 74.1
74.37
74.69
75.00
75.23
75.8
women 78,35 79.10 79.67 79.90 80.13 80.13
80.60
80.74
80.88
81.13
81.7
Live birth1)
8,8 10.0
10.3 11.1 11.5 11.3
11.1 10.4
10.3
10.2
10.4
Deaths1)
10,6 10.5 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.0
Natural increase1)
-1,8 -0.6 0.1 1.0
1.4 1.0 1.0 0.2
0.0
-0.2
0.4
Net migration1)
-0,6 3.5 3.4 8.1 6.9 2.7 1.5 1.6
1.0
-0.1
2.1
Total increase1)
-1,1 3.0 3.5 9.1 8.3 3.7 2.5
1.8
1.0
-0.4
2.5

1) Per 1000 inhabitants.

Source: Czech Statistical Office


Legislation and bibliography:

Forecast for the population development in the Czech Republic for the period 2008-2070

Websites of the Czech Statistical Office

Websites of the Eurostat



Official and Minority Languages

The official language is Czech, which belongs to the western Slavic family of languages. Regional dialects do not possess the status of a language and as groups of people using dialects are small dialect is not a problem in schools.

People have freedom to declare their membership of a national minority and their enjoyment of the related rights. Traditional national minorities include Slovaks, Poles and Germans. Moravians and Silesians speak Czech.

The Roma are an ethnic minority. Their precise number cannot be defined as it depends on whether individuals declare themselves to be Roma or not. In the 2011 official census (5 135 persons declared themselves to be Roma) the number was one half of that in the previous census; the qualified estimate is 180 thousand people.

Information about education of minorities is available in the chapter on Educational Support and Guidance.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on rights of racial minorities members and amending some Acts



Religions

The State is denominationally neutral, which means that there is no official religion. Freedom of religion is granted and everybody has the right to express their own religion or belief.

The traditionally low number of people practising religions has decreased further, following a short period of growth after 1989. In the 2011 census 14% of all inhabitants claimed that they belong to a denomination, another 7% declared themselves as believers who do not belong to a denomination. The rest of the people are non-believers (34 %) or did not answer the question (45 %).

Due to historical developments (the reformation movement at the beginning of the 15th century and the strong counter-reformation associated with the arrival of the Habsburg dynasty which resulted in forcible massive re-catholicisation after 1627), the Roman Catholic Church (74 % of all believers) is the biggest church. The Evangelical Church of the Czech Brethren and the Czechoslovak Hussite Church are the other two most important churches. As of January 2014 there were 36 churches and religious societies registered (the condition for registration is a minimum of 300 adult followers).

Schools only opened up to religious influences after 1989, both in the curriculum (re-introduction of a possibility to teach religion as a subject, and the introduction of information on churches into history and civic education), and in organisation (the establishment of denominational schools, abolishing quantitative restrictions on theological studies). Religious education at public schools is governed by law.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on freedom of religious persuasion and status of churches and religious communities

The Constitution of the Czech Republic

Resolution of the Cabinet of the Czech National Council on promulgation of the Declaration of basic human rights and freedoms