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Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Political Situation

The recent government was established on the basis of the elections to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, which were held in 2013, and appointed at the end of January 2014. Three elected parties formed a coalition: Czech Social Democratic Party, political movement ANO 2011 and the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party. The Prime Minister is Bohuslav Sobotka from the Czech Social Democratic Party. The government has committed itself to focus on a socially and ecologically oriented market economy, thereby to strive to maintain social cohesion and the country's prosperity. Furthermore, it will endeavour to invoke an economic programme based on the support of entrepreneurial activities, a functioning and transparent public administration, an efficient labour market, a sustainable pension scheme, social consensus in the society and investments to education, science and research. The government has also committed itself to an active social dialogue with social partners, to make an effort to adopt the Euro and to improve the quality of legislation.

In the area of education, youth and sports the government committed itself to prepare a long-term strategy for the development of education, to establish a National Council for Education with the aim of supporting discussion among the experts, to increase the quality of education at all stages and also in cooperation with the faculties of education, to improve the training of teachers. Other priorities are to ensure the systemic support of pre-primary education and to make changes in the system of financing of the regional education. In response to the labour market needs, the government will promote technical and vocational education. According to the government, it is essential to stabilise the state school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška) and introduce proficiency examinations for certain specific apprenticeships. Free higher education at public and state higher education institutions should be guaranteed. It also plans to introduce career rules for teachers and to promote the transparent financing of sport.

For more precise information, see the Policy Statement of the Government of the Czech Republic published directly on the website of the Government of the Czech Republic.


Economic Situation

The Czech Republic is a country with a developed export-oriented market economy. The main industries include the chemical industry, engineering, food processing and the metallurgical industry. From the above, the most important for export is the automobile industry.

The 2015 growth is the best the Czech economy has achieved over the last eight years. The growth was driven mainly by domestic demand and investment increase (gross fixed capital formation); manufecturing and services participated equilly on growth from the side of supply.   In 2015, Czech GDP grew by 4,3 %. The improving of the  economic development has been closely linked with  decline in unemployment rate, which has fallen  below 5 %. The average inflation rate  reached 0.3 % in 2015. Mainly the external factors as the fall in the oil prices and deflation in manufacturing industry contributed to low inflation rate. It was reflected in low prices of import and industrial products. The inflation rate is low despite the fact that since November 2013 the Czech National Bank (CNB) initiated foreign exchange intervention with the aim of weakening of the koruna (crown)  and maintaining  price stability in the Czech economy. The CNB target for the inflation rate has been stated as 2 %. 

About 59.4% of inhabitants aged 15+ and 74% aged 15–64 are economically active (data for 2015). With increasing educational attainment the age of entrance into employment is raising, however the retirement age is shifting to higher figures as well (see Conditions of Service for Teachers in Early Childhood and School Education, part Retirement and Pensions).

In 2015, the employment rate of the age group 15+ was 56.4 %, it rose interannually by 0.7 percentage point. In the long term the proportion of people working in agriculture has decreased slightly while the number working in industry and services has risen. In services there are 60 % of employees; industry 37 % and the remaining 3 % work in agriculture.

The unemployment rate of the age group 15+ was 5.0 % (2015). The unemployment rate shows big regional differences. In general, the unemployment rate is influenced by age, sex and the level of education achieved. In recent years, the unemployment rate of graduates, and hence the youth unemployment in general, has been rising. People over the age of fifty are the group with a higher risk of unemployment.

In 2014 the share of expenditure on education to GDP was 4.1 %. In comparison with other European countries, the share of expenditure on education to GDP is relatively low. For funding of education see the Chapter 3 on Funding in Education.


Macroeconomic indicators of system of education


2005 2006 2007 20081) 2009 2010 2011
2012
2013
2014
2015

GDP in billions CZK, current prices (seasonally adjusted)(in billions EUR)

3 258.0
3 507.1
3 831.8
4 015.3
3 921.8
3 953.7
4 022.5
4 041.6
4 077.1
4 260.9
4 472.3
Public educational expenditure in billions CZK, current prices

130.3


142.8


153.0


151.0


163.9


163.0


173.7


171.4


172.8


178.7
182.8
Educational expenditure relative to GDP in %
4.0
4.1
4.0
3.8
4.2
4.1
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1

1) Year-on-year decline in expenditures in 2008 results from the implementation of Act No. 26/2008. Unexpended financial resources of a government and state bodies are no longer transferred to the reserve funds and thus they are not included in the expenditures for 2008.

Note: EUR/CZK 27.407 - 26 May 2015 (European Central Bank)  

Source: Yearbook of Trends. Education in the Czech Republic 2005/06-2015/16


Unemployment rate

Unemployment rate in per cent – population aged 15+

Year
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Total
8.1 7.3 7.8 8.3 7.9 7.1 5.3 4.4 6.7 7.3
6.7
7.0
7.0
6.1
5.0
Men 6.7 5.9 6.1
7.0 6.5 5.8 4.2
3.5 5.8 6.4
5.8
6.0
5.9
5.1
4.2
Women 9.9
9.0 9.9 9.9 9.8 8.8 6.7 5.6 7.7
8.5 7.9
8.2
8.3
7.4
6.1

Source: Czech Statistical Office


Education attainment by age groups

Percentage of the population that has attained a specific level of education by age group in %

Age group
At least upper secondary education
Upper secondary education1)
Tertiary education2)

2005
2015
2005
2015
2005 2015
25-64
90
92
77
71
13
20
25-34
94
94
80
63
14 31
35-44
93 96 79
73
14 23
45-54 88 95
76
75
13 20
55-64 83
88
73
73
11 15

1) At least ISCED 3, i.e. upper secondary education with the apprenticeship certificate (výuční list) or upper secondary education with the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška).

2) Tertiary professional education at a conservatoire (with graduate wxamination) – ISCED 550, tertiary professional education (vyšší odborné vzdělání, ISCED 655) and higher education (vysokoškolské vzdělání, ISCED 645, ISCED 746, ISCED 8).

Source: Education at a Glance 2007 and Eurostat Database


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education at a Glance 2007

Eurostat Database

Websites of the Czech Statistical Office

Yearbook of Trends. Education in the Czech Republic 2004/05-2013/14