This page was last modified on 28 March 2017, at 10:43.

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Geographical Accessibility

A municipality is obliged to provide for the compulsory school attendance of children with permanent residence in its territory and children placed in its territory in school facilities for institutional or preventative care. For such purposes a municipality establishes and closes a basic school (základní škola) or ensures compulsory school attendance to be satisfied at a basic school established by another municipality or union of municipality.

Catchment areas of local schools are defined in the territory of a municipality, a part of a municipality, or in the territory of several municipalities. If there is only one basic education in an area, the local school catchment area is the territory of the municipality. If a municipality does not define a local school catchment area and the compulsory school attendance of pupils is endangered, the relevant Regional Authority decides on the local school catchment area. A local school catchment area need not be defined for a school providing education for disabled pupils and for schools established by other than a municipality or union of municipalities.

A region is obliged to ensure transport to the local school catchment area within the basic public transport service if the distance from a pupil's place of permanent residence exceeds four kilometres.

If the pupil attends a compulsory school in another municipality, then the municipality where the pupil is resident, is obliged to pay the municipality – the organising body of the school – the current costs per pupil of this school, unless the municipalities agree otherwise. The municipality is not obliged to pay these costs if there is a school in its catchment area which can offer free compulsory school attendance for the pupils.

There has always been an even, dense distribution of basic schools. There are a great number of small municipalities in the Czech Republic meaning also a large number of small schools (29.6 % of basic schools have less than 50 pupils). The Education Act offers two measures how to increase geographic accessibility of the basic schools and ensure the operation of schools in small municipalities. The schools which do not have all years can be established and pupils at the first stage from several succesive years can be taught in one class, at the same time, both options can be combined. In practice, more common (about a third of all the basic schools) is a school which has only the first stage with either individual classes for every year, or from one to four classes where pupils from several years are mixed in a different ways (so called málotřídní školy). Sometimes these schools do not have all years. There are also schools which have both stages, but pupils from different years at the first stage are mixed in one class. Exceptionally, there are also schools only with the second stage.

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in its implementing regulation stipulates the minimum number of pupils for individual types of schools, and the minimum and maximum numbers of pupils in a class (see in the section on Age Levels and Grouping of Children).


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Statistical Yearbook – Education 2014/15


 

Admission Requirements and Choice of School

The legal guardian of a child is obliged to register the child for compulsory school attendance between 1st and 30th April of the calendar year during which the child should begin compulsory school attendance.

Compulsory school attendance starts at the beginning of the school year following the child's sixth birthday, unless he/she is granted a postponement. Exceptionally, also a child younger than six years of age may be admitted to compulsory school attendance. On the contrary, a high number of parents is choosing to postpone the beginning of school attendance for their children (see the section Compulsory Education in the Chapter 2 Organisation and Governance).

Skola monika.jpg

A pupil satisfies their compulsory school attendance at the basic school (základní škola) established by a municipality or a union of municipalities located in the school catchment area where the pupil has permanent residence (local school) unless the legal guardian selects for the pupil a school other than the local school (see the section Compulsory Education).

Pupils move from one year to the next automatically. The prerequisite for acceptance at a multi-year general school (gymnázium) or eight-year conservatoire (konzervatoř) is successfully meeting the entrance requirements, which may include an entrance examination (see the section on Admission Requirements in upper secondary education), in case of conservatoire the enrollment proceeding has a form of an aptitude examination (see the section on Admission Requirements in Conservatoires, both sections in the Chapter 6 on Upper Secondary Education).

Monika, 10 yrs


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act


 

Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils

Basic education is mostly realized in the basic school (základní škola), which comprises 9 years and is divided into the first stage (years 1-5, primary education) and the second stage (years 6-9, lower secondary education). It is still, however, possible for a school to comprise fewer than all (9) years (see the section on Geographical Accessibility).

Pupils are usual grouped into classes by age. In the first stage of education, one class can comprise pupils from more than one year of the first stage (so called málotřídní škola).

An exceptionally talented pupil can be transferred to a higher year without completing the previous year, although such cases are exceptional. A failing pupil can repeat a year, but no more than once in a stage. For more on grade skipping and repeating a year see the part on Assessment in Single Structure Education, section Progression of Pupils.

Compulsory education can also be fulfilled in lower classes of multi-year general secondary school (gymnázium) and conservatoire. The lower level of the six-year general secondary school corresponds to the last two years of basic school and is open to pupils who have successfully completed the seventh year of basic school, i.e. at the age of thirteen/fourteen years. The lower secondary level of the eight-year multi-year general secondary school corresponds to the second stage of basic school and is open to pupils who have successfully completed the fifth year of basic school, i.e. at the age of eleven/twelve.

One class can have a maximum of 30 pupils. The minimum average number of pupils is 17. A school with only the first stage has an average of 10-15 pupils in one class according to the number of classes. The organising body of the school may permit exceptions from the stipulated number of pupils:

  • the minimum number of pupils stipulated by the Education Act and implementing legal regulation, provided the school covers the increased costs of educational activities above the amount fixed by regional per capita amount;
  • the maximum number of pupils stipulated by the Education Act and implementing legal regulation, provided that an increased number of pupils is not detrimental to the quality of education offered by the school, and that health and safety conditions are satisfied. 

There were 4 106 basic schools recorded in the register of school and school institutions in the 2014/15 school year. In 2014/15 there were almost 854 thousand of pupils in basic schools, which represents approximately 208 pupils per school. The average school size at primary education was 129 pupils in 2014/15, which covers five more pupils per school than in the previous year. The average school size at lower secondary level has risen to 120 pupils.

In accordance with the school educational programme, classes can be divided into groups for instruction in certain subjects, and groups can be formed of pupils from one or more years. Classes can also be merged. The number of groups and numbers of pupils in the groups is determined with regard to the spatial, personal, and financial potential of the school, to the nature of activity performed by pupils, in accordance with health and safety requirements, and with respect to the demands of the subject in terms of didactics and methodology. In foreign language lessons, the highest number of pupils in one group is 24. In general, physical educational at the first stage is coeducational, at the second stage the class is usually divided into two groups – the girls’ and the boys’ ones. The concrete organisation of physical education is decided by the school head with respect to the conditions and needs of a school and its pupils.

The school head can organise groups of pupils or classes with extended teaching of some subjects or groups of subjects. Classes using adapted educational programmes are established for disabled pupils. A class for disabled pupils has 6-14 pupils and it is possible to place pupils from two or more years in a class.

If in a municipality a Committee for National Minorities was established, a class or school offering education in the language of the relevant minority must be set up. A class must have at least 10 pupils on an average, and a school must have an average of 12 pupils in one class. (For details see the section on Minorities in the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance.)

At selected schools, classes for language instruction are established by the regional authority for pupils performing compulsory education in the territory of the Czech Republic, whose parents are not citizens of the Czech Republic and who are staying in the territory of the Czech Republic on a long-term basis. Such classes must have a maximum of 10 pupils. (For details see the section on Foreigners in the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance.)

In general, classes at the first stage have only one class teacher (generalist), with some subjects possibly taught by another teacher. At the second stage, teaching by specialised subject teachers is the rule. In classes where a pupil with special educational needs is educated, a post of teacher's assistant (asistent pedagoga) may be established.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Statistical Yearbook – Education 2014/15

Yearbook of Trends. Education in the Czech Republic 2004/05–2014/15

Decree on Basic Education

Organisation of the School Year

The school year in all types of schools runs from September 1 to August 31 of the following year. It is divided into teaching periods and holiday periods. The teaching period of a school year starts on September 1 and ends on June 30 of the following calendar year and is divided into two terms. School holidays include autumn holidays, Christmas holidays, a mid-school-year holiday, spring holidays, Easter holidays and summer holidays.

The holiday periods are specified by ministerial decree. Details on organisation of the given school year are set by the Ministry of Education every year. The Ministry of Education may, in individual cases, permit variations from the usual organisation of the school year.

SCHOOL YEAR
Details
School year 2015/16
school year
The school year in all types of schools runs from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. It is divided into teaching periods and holiday periods.
from 1 September 2015 to 31 August 2016
TEACHING PERIOD
The teaching period of a school year starts on 1 September and ends on 30 June of the following calendar year and is divided into two terms.
from 1 September 2015 to 30 June 2016
first term
The first term runs from 1 September to 31 January of the following calendar year. If the first term starts on a Friday, teaching begins the following Monday.
from 1 September 2015 to 31 January 2016 (teaching begins on Tuesday, 1 September 2015, and ends on Thursday, 28 January 2016)
second term
The second term runs from 1 February to 30 June. If the second term is to end on a Monday, teaching ends the previous Friday.
from 1 February to 30 June 2016 (teaching begins on Monday, 1 February 2016, and ends on Thursday, 30 June 2016)
HOLIDAYS


autumn holidays
Autumn holidays consist of two days and are linked up with the public holiday 28 October.
Thursday 29 and Friday 30 October 2015
Christmas holidays
Christmas holidays run from 23 December to 2 January.
from Wednesday, 23 December 2015, to Sunday, 3 January 2016
mid-school-year holiday
The mid-school-year holiday is one day and is held on a Friday in the period 29 January – 4 February.
Friday, 29 January 2016
spring holidays
Spring holidays last one week and their timing vary according to the location of the school within the period from the first complete week of February to the last complete week of March, so that it does not overlap with Easter holidays.
see the list on web site of the Ministry of Education
Easter holidays
Easter holidays run from the Thursday before Easter to Easter Monday.
Thursday 24 and Friday 25 April 2016
summer holidays
The main summer holidays last from the end of the second term to the beginning of the first term, in principle from 1 July 1 to 31 August.
from Friday, 1 July 2016, to Wednesday, 31 August 2016

A school head can agree a maximum of five days off during one school year for serious organisational and technical reasons.

School facilities for developing personal interests operate as follows: The školní družina for pupils at primary level operates on school days and on holidays. The školní klub – school club for pupils at lower secondary level operates on school days, and on days when there are no lessons. The středisko volného času usually operates throughout the school year. School meals are provided for pupils while they are at school, and possibly also during holidays.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Organisation of School Year

Decree on School Catering

Decree on Special Interest Education



Organisation of the school day and week

The organisation of school time is set down by the Education Act and by decrees that fix the organisation of a school year and weekly and daily regime; and by educational programmes. The school week, like the working week, comprises five days, from Monday to Friday. The school head decides on the actual organisation of the daily timetable, within the framework of general rules set up by legislative and curricular documents. The beginning and end of teaching is limited by decree. Time for extracurricular activities is not stipulated.


5-day Week System

LENGTH OF SCHOOL DAY, EACH DAY OF THE WEEK

Out-of-hours provision (before lessons)
Lessons (starting and finishing times in the morning)
Lunch break Lessons (starting and finishing times in the afternoon)
Lessons (starting and finishing times in the afternoon)
Out-of-hours provision (after lessons)
Monday
Not set
No earlier than at 7 a.m.
At least 50 minutes
No later than 5 p.m.
Not set
Tuesday
Not set
No earlier than at 7 a.m.
At least 50 minutes
No later than 5 p.m.
Not set
Wednesday
Not set
No earlier than at 7 a.m. At least 50 minutes
No later than 5 p.m.
Not set
Thursday
Not set
No earlier than at 7 a.m. At least 50 minutes
No later than 5 p.m.
Not set
Friday
Not set
No earlier than at 7 a.m.
At least 50 minutes
No later than 5 p.m.
Not set


Organisation of the School Day

Classes usually start at 8 a.m., but a school head can move the starting time as long as it is not earlier than 7 a.m. The last lessons must finish by 5 p.m. at the latest. The school head must allow pupils to enter the premises of the school at least 20 minutes before the commencement of lessons, and during the break between morning and afternoon lessons.

One lesson lasts 45 minutes. In justified cases school lessons may be split up or joined together. Pupils can have a maximum of 6 lessons in the morning and 6 lessons in the afternoon. The concrete number of lessons is set by the school with regard to the nature of the activities and to the basic physiological needs of pupils.

There are 10-minute breaks and at least one 15-minute break, usually after the first two lessons. The break between the morning and afternoon classes is at least 50 minutes. In special cases, with regard to the basic physiological needs of pupils, some 10-minute breaks can be shortened to 5 minutes at minimum, and the break between morning and afternoon lessons to 30 minutes at minimum. When instruction is not organised in traditional lessons the distribution of breaks and their length is determined with regard to the nature of the activities and to the basic physiological needs of pupils.

The school building can be open outside teaching hours for use in extracurricular and leisure time activities (see the section on Organisation of the School Year).


Number of Hours per Week

The maximum number of hours per week is set by the Education Act, the minimum number of hours per week is set by the framework curriculum timetable. The number of hours per week per given years is as follows:

Year 
1.
2.
3.
 4.
 5.  6. 7. 8. 9.
Interval
18-22  18-22  22-26  22-26 
22-26  28-30  28-30  30-32  30-32

The minimum number of hours per educational area or educational field is set in the Framework Educational Programme by framework curriculum timetable for the period of the 1st (1st-5th year) and 2nd (6th-9th year) stage. The concrete timetable is defined in school educational programme, issued by the school head.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Basic Education

Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education