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Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

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Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

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Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Geographical Accessibility

The attendance of facilities taking care of children up to 3 years of age is influenced by several factors:

Since 1970, maternity allowances have been introduced to which mothers were entitled up to 2 years of the child's age. From the end of the 1980s it gradually increased to up to 4 years of the child's age. In the first half of the 1990's, it was also extended to fathers and it is now called parental allowance. Since 2007, the allowance has been significantly raised. In successive years, rules for its drawing up were adjusted. Parents are entitled to receive the allowance after termination of the maternity leave (from 5 months of a child's age) during which they withdrew financial help in maternity. At present, they decide on the monthly amount of the allowance, up to the amount of possible withdrawn financial help in maternity (a maximum of 11 500 CZK (EUR 420; EUR/CZK 27.407 - 26 May 2015)). They can draw CZK  220 000 (EUR 8 thousands) altoghether, at the maximum up to 4 years of a child's age. Also parents who have not withdrawn the financial help in maternity are entitled to receive the allowance, that is to say up to 9 months of a childs's age in the amount of CZK 7 600 (EUR 277) and successively up to 4 years of a child's age in the amount of CZK 3 800 (EUR 139). While withdrawing the parental allowance, parents can be gainfully employed. The amount of the earnings is not limited. Parents who take care of their child during the whole day are entitled to receive the allowance (possibly provide care by another of person of age). Up to 2 years of age, the child can attend a nursery school or a similar facility, however, for a maximum of 46 hours per month (when the amount is exceeded, the allowance cannot be disbursed). Attendance of children over 2 years is not observed in the above mentioned facilities.

The number of crèches (jesle) that were established in 1950's was significantly reduced in connection with the demographic decrease in 1990's. The establishment and maintenance of crèches was fully in municipalities' purview, crèches existed mainly in big cities. In recent years, their overall capacity has been minimalised with over 1,400 places in 45 facilities (including a private one, subsidised by a municipality) in connection to the overall number of children under 3 years of age (the number has recently slightly increased). Participation of the 0-3 cohort was about 0,5 %. In 2012, the operation of crèches was, according to existing acts, revoked. They could have operated until the end of 2013. In general the facilities continue to operate but in a different another mode – as a part of health or social facilities or as facilities established on the basis of a trade. Since 2014 the municipalities have been allowed to establish a new form of care – a child group (see below).

Since 2000, the Trade Licensing Act enabled the establishment of a facility taking care of children under 3 years of age on the basis of a particular regulated trade. Up to 21 April 2015, 662 entities had the trade “Daily care of children under 3 years of age” registered in a facility (source: Ministry of Industry and Trade). The children participation rate is not monitored.

Children up to 3 years of age can be exceptionally accepted to a nursery school (mateřská škola). However, the number of such children is quite high in fact. In 2014/15, about 34.6 % of children under 3 years of age attended nursery schools, as measured from the age cohort of the two-year olds. Such a solution even deepens the capacity problems of nursery schools, causes operational difficulties, as a daily regime for two-year olds differs from that of the older ones. The possibility of re-joining crèches with nursery schools is no longer taken into consideration.

Other means of support of mothers' (parents') employment of children under 3 years of age are being discussed. Since November 2014 a new Act on Child Group (dětská skupina) has been in force. Such a form of care, aimed at children from 1 year till the start of the compulsory school attendance, decreases demands on hygienic conditions etc., which should facilitate their establishment by employers. Up to 20 November 2015, 61 entities were registered in the child groups register (source: Web of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affaires).

The situation is further complicated by the insufficient offer of part-time jobs (only 10 % of women were working part-time in 2014, in European Union countries it was 33 %). (Source: Eurostate website.) Part-time enrolment of small children to facilities taking care of children is not only more affordable than full-time enrolment for a certain number of parents, but probably corresponds better to their expectations on the division of care between a family and a facility. Parents (mothers) usually return to their jobs after three years of a child's age, when it is more common for them to attend more accessible nursery schools during the whole day and thus, parents can start working full-time. Even so, the percentage of women employed with the youngest child under 6 years of age is still quite low in the Czech Republic (in 2013 only 40 % with one child and 45 % with two children).


Legislation and Bibliography:

Network of Health Establishments 2011

Yearbook of Trends. Education in the Czech Republic 2005/06-2014/15

Trade Licensing Act

Zaostřeno na ženy a muže 2015 (Focus on Women and Men 2015)



Admission Requirements and Choice of ECEC Institution

Children accepted to a setting for children under 3 years of age established according the Trade Licensing Act as well as to child groups must be properly vaccinated.

Criteria for admission into the settings for children under 3 years of age are set by the provider. The facilities can accept children from their birth. Often they offer also the services for children over 3 years of age (e.g. the provider has registered also the trade for extracurricular education, see the section on Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures). The choice of the facility is influenced by the cost for the provided service that is usually rather high (exact statistical data do not exist).

The child group is meant for children over 1 year of age till the commencement of the compulsory school attendance (so till 6 years, in the case of postponement of the school attendance till 7 years). The provider closes a deal in writing with a parent on the service of care in a child group. Only children of provider's employees or children of employees of other employer based on the agreement between employers are admitted. This condition is not valid if the provider is an institute, church or denomination, territorial self-governing unit or a legal entity established by it, public benefit corporation, foundation or endowement fund, higher education institution or corporation; these subjects can offer the service to all children. The cost service of childcare in a child group is free of charge or partly or fully paid for. The criteria for amount of payment are set by the provider.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Trade Licensing Act

Act on Child Group

Act on Protection of Public Health



Age Levels and Grouping of Children

Settings for children under 3 years of age can admit children from their birth. The facilities often operate jointly with services for children over 3 years of age (the proved has e.g. trade for extracurricular education, see Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures). The groups are homogeneous as well as heterogeneous, a group composed of children under and over 3 years of age is also possible. Number of of children in a group and number of people caring for children is not stipulated by law. If they work with children under 3 years of age, they have to have an imposed qualification (see the section on Initial Education in the Chapter 9 on Teachers and Education Staff.)

The child group is meant for children since 1 year of age till the commencement of compulsory school attendance (e.g. till 6 years, in the case of postponement of the school attendance till 7 years). The number of children in a group is 24 maximum. Number of caring persons per a group is as follows:

  • 6 and less children – 1 person at least;
  • 7 to 24 children – 2 persons at least;
  • 13 to 24 children, if one child under 2 years of age is included in a group – 3 persons at least.

All caring persons have to have an imposed qualification (see the section on Initial Education in the Chapter 9 on Teachers and Education Staff.)


Legislation and Bibliography:

Trade Licensing Act

Act on Child Group



Organisation of Time

The organisation of time during the year is completely under responsibility of the organising bodies / providers both in the case of settings for children under 3 years of age and child groups. Because of the fact that the Education Act does not apply to them nor the clause on the school year, they offer the service often during the holiday. See also the section on Organisation of the Day and Week.



Organisation of the Day and Week

The organisation of time of childcare in settings for children under 3 years of age is completely under the responsibility of the provider, that is it depends on the agreement with parent. The Trade Licensing Act only stipulates that the content of the care has among others to assure a stay outside, boarding and sleeping in an appropriate hygienic environment. The facilities offer regular care from several hours a day to whole day (in fact, some of them organise the care for the whole week) and also a short time babysitting or babysitting in families.

The organisation of time of childcare in a child group is not stipulated by law. It can be included in inner rules (rules of the organisation which provide the service of childcare in a child group) and in the programme of education and care (for more see the section on Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years). The time of services has to be agreed in the contract between parents and the provider. The provider is not obliged to supply food if it is not agreed otherwise.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Trade Licensing Act

Act on Child Group