This page was last modified on 1 March 2017, at 17:10.

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

This chapter provides a thematic and chronological overview of national reforms and policy developments since 2014.

The introduction of the chapter describes the overall education strategy and the key objectives across the whole education system. It also looks at how the education reform process is organised and who are the main actors in the decision-making process.

The section on ongoing reforms and policy developments groups reforms in the following broad thematic areas that largely correspond to education levels:

  • Early childhood education and care
  • School education
  • VET and Adult learning
  • Higher education
  • Transversal skills and Employability

Inside each thematic area, reforms are organised chronologically. The most recent reforms are described first.

Finally the section on the European perspective provides links to European strategies in which education and training have a prominent role.


Overall national education strategy and key objectives

The Czech Republic is currently introducing a new education policy, which aims at increasing the quality and accessibility of education. After being approved by the Government in July 2014, the new Strategy for Education Policy of the Czech Republic until 2020 came into effect. This comprehensive document strives, among other things, to overcome the problems resulting from the fragmentation of strategic planning and management in the field of education policy. From a conceptual point of view, the strategy defines the basic priorities of the Czech Republic's development of the educational system to be followed by authorities and policy makers. The strategy is, in line with the Education & Training 2020 strategic framework, based on the concept of lifelong learning aiming at contributing to the achievement of the main goals of education: personal development, contributing to improving the quality of human life; the maintenance and development of culture as a system of shared values; the development of active citizenship, creating conditions for a socially cohesive society and democratic governance, and preparation for employment. The strategy formulates three key priorities:

  1. to achieve a significant decrease in the inequality of the education system in the forthcoming years;
  2. to support teachers as the key prerequisite of high-quality education, which is related to the completion and implementation of the career system and enhancing the quality of future teachers’ training at higher education institutions;
  3. to introduce effective and accountable governance of the education system.

See the website www.vzdelavani2020.cz.

The following long-term plans are intended to serve as the implementation plans of the Strategy for Education Policy until 2020:

The Long-term Plan for Education and the Development of the Education System of the Czech Republic (2015-2020)asserts the strategic aims and criteria of the national education policy (based on the 2020 Strategy) and shapes the form of the regional Long-term Plans. It focuses, in particular, on equal opportunities in education, with an emphasis on the guidance and education of children with special needs. Other crucial objectives include an effort to make the system of students and schools and the education system more effective and creating better conditions for teachers and teaching staff. See also separate section.

A new strategic plan for higher education institutions for the period 2016-2020 was approved in February 2015. The Strategic Plan defines the priorities and main measures for higher education in the years 2016-2020. It is one of the implementation documents of the Strategy for Education Policy of the Czech Republic until 2020. The priority objectives include: ensuring quality; diversity and accessibility; internationalisation; relevance, quality and relevant research, development, and innovation, and decisions based on data and effective financing. See also separate section.

In relation to fulfilling the goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy, corresponding national goals for the Czech Republic were set. The two main targets for education and training which should be achieved by 2020 have been identified as:

  • sustaining a drop-out rate with a maximum level of 5.5%;
  • increasing the ratio of people aged 30-34 reaching the tertiary level of education to 32%.

Measures aimed at reaching these and other priority targets in the area of education are formulated annually in the National Reform Programme of the Czech Republic.

Important implementation tools for achieving the goals set are the Development Programmes, Institutional Programmes, and Operational Programmes. The Development Programmes reflect the particular needs of regional education, Institutional Programmes contribute to the development of the higher education institutions, and within the framework of Operational Programmes projects across all educational levels are carried out.


Legislation and bibliography:

Long-term Plan for Education and the Development of the Education System of the Czech Republic (2015-2020)

National reform programme 2015

Strategic Plan for the Scholarly, Scientific, Research, Development, Innovation, Artistic and Other Creative Activities of Higher Education Institutions (2016-2020)

Strategy for Education Policy of the Czech Republic until 2020


Overview of the education reform process and drivers

In the Czech Republic, the reform initiatives in education can originate, as in many other EU countries, from different stakeholders – government, regional and local authorities, non-governmental and non-profit organisations, employers and employee unions, and business. Most often, it is a political initiative launched by elected officials (members of Parliament) or Government Ministers, which is then put forward, mainly by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports as the national authority, and mainly through so-called long-term plans for the development of the compulsory education system and tertiary education.

In the past 13 years the important reforms in the area of education mainly originated in the 2001 White Paper – National Programme for the Development of Education in the Czech Republic and the 2004 Education Act. In line with their objectives, regional education has been significantly decentralised (powers were transferred from the central government to the level of regional and local authorities) and the autonomy of schools has been strengthened. These changes made room for innovation and participation from all stakeholders. The decentralisation of education, however, has led to the widespread fragmentation of governance, to the dilution of support capacities, and to problems with the coordination of education policy at all levels of administration – national, regional, and local. The increased level of school autonomy has led to an increase in the accountability of schools, but also to a disproportionate shift of responsibility towards the school level, without adequate training and support for school leaders.

Tertiary education has also seen some considerable changes recently. The accessibility of tertiary education, especially for the young population, has increased as a result of a consistent effort to increase the capacity of higher education institutions, the unprecedented rise in the number of students in higher education, and the favourable demographic trend. Tertiary education gives people a number of advantages, such as a better response to the increasing qualification requirements in a number of professions and a better position in the labour market for graduates from tertiary professional or higher education, as well as a number of non-economic benefits. All this clearly shows the enduring need for unrestricted and easy access to tertiary education. This education sector will, however, need some time to regain sufficient stability and create the conditions for the gradual completion of mechanisms designed to improve the performance of the system and ensure its high quality, fairness, and efficiency.

These facts have recently been reflected in the Strategy for Education Policy of the Czech Republic until 2020, which aims to strengthen the strategic governance of the education system in the Czech Republic and define more clearly the division of the roles of its actors. For more information, see the above section on Overall national education strategy and key objectives. 


Legislation and bibliography:

Strategy for Education Policy of the Czech Republic until 2020

Long-term Plan for Education and the Development of the Education System of the Czech Republic (2015–2020)

National Programme for the Development of Education in the Czech Republic. White Paper (2001)

Strategic Plan for the Scholarly, Scientific, Research, Development, Innovation, Artistic and Other Creative Activities of Higher Education Institutions (2016–2020)