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Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

 

Student Mobility

Admission of Foreign Students

Czech higher education institutions also offer opportunities for foreign students to study there. The general precondition is that an applicant has to have completed secondary education with an examination equivalent to the Czech school leaving examination (maturitní zkouška). The student studies under same rules as the Czech student. If the student studies in the Czech language at a higher education institution (vysoká škola), he or she is not charged any fees (providing that the duration of study does not exceed the typical duration bymore than a year), but if the studies are in a foreign language the level of fees is stipulated by the public higher education institution.

Higher educational institutions set fees, study programmes and other conditions. Graduates are awarded a Czech diploma corresponding to the study programme taken (Bachelor, Master, Doctoral), for more details see the chapter on Higher Education. The Amendment of Higher Education Act which entered in force 1 January 2006 provides for higher education institutions to award students in study programmes organised in co-operation with foreign higher education institutions the Czech academic title and also the academic title of the foreign higher education institution pursuant to the current legislation in the relevant country. The diploma includes the name of the foreign higher education institution with which the cooperation is in place and may include information that the foreign academic title is a joint title also awarded simultaneously at the foreign higher education institution.

The policy approach which encourages participating in mobility programmes is included in Strategic Plan 2010-2015 under the Priority - 2. Openness 2.1 Internationalisation 2.1.1 Internationalisation in education. The objective of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is implementing the Bologna process in the Czech Republic so that Czech higher education institutions become full members of the European Higher Education Area and enhance their competitiveness in the international arena.

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports shall:

  • provide for the participation of the Czech Republic in programmes of the EU and other organisations that are concerned with international cooperation in tertiary education  (Lifelong Learning Programme, Erasmus Mundus, Aktion, CEEPUS etc.);
  • support programmes focusing on the mobility of students and staff of higher education institutions;
  • seek to ensure financial advantages for higher education institutions that will obtain the  Diploma Supplement Label and the ECTS Label;
  • seek to establish suitable conditions for the permanent employment of foreign experts in academia (this concerns, inter alia, the international comparability of the system of academic posts);
  • promote Czech higher education abroad (in cooperation with the Centre for International Services) – via the www.studyin.cz website, participation at international fairs, publication of promotional information materials.


In relation to the above, higher education institutions are advised to apply the following measures:

  • to focus on correct implementation and the maximum use of the ECTS credit system based on learning outcomes, free-of-charge issuance of the Diploma Supplement to all graduates in Czech and English (or, at the student’s request, in another widely used European language). The award by the European Commission of the Diploma Supplement Label and the ECTS Label constitutes acknowledgement of good practice;
  • student mobility should become a regular component of studies (e.g. the so-called mobility window as a part of study programmes), the objective of which to make it possible for all those interested to undergo at least part of their studies at a foreign institution;
  • long-term mobility should be part of career progression for academic staff, and mobility should also be a commonplace for other (administrative) staff at higher education institutions;
  • to increase the number of students undergoing study visits and work placements abroad;
  • to maintain data on outgoing and incoming students in the student registry in a consistent manner;
  • to support student mobility by means of providing scholarships covered from higher education institutions’ own resources;
  • to provide for appropriate and consistent recognition of studies undertaken abroad (for short-term study visits abroad this should be done automatically in line with the learning agreement); higher education institutions have to address this matter in their internal regulations;
  • to increase the number of foreign students at Czech higher education institutions by means of: enlarging the scope of study programmes delivered in foreign languages, promoting education at Czech higher education institutions abroad (web-based information, presentations at international educational fairs, cooperation with embassies), developing higher education institutions’ strategies of international cooperation and preparing conditions for the studies of foreign students (study programmes in foreign languages, facilities and equipment, language skills of staff in higher education, accommodation, leisure activities, etc.), and by means of foreign experts working at Czech higher education institutions;
  • to develop the supply of study programmes (particularly those at Master and Doctoral levels) accredited and delivered in foreign languages, and of joint/double/multiple degrees;
  • to participate in European Community programmes – the Life Long Learning Programme, programmes involving cooperation between the EU and other parts of the world  (Erasmus Mundus, Tempus, EU-USA, EU-Canada, EU-Australia, EU-Korea etc.);
  • to establish conditions for developing a genuinely international environment where English (or another language) is the common language of communication – not only during instruction (this applies to higher education institutions focusing on intensive cooperation with foreign higher education institutions).

Higher education institutions also offer paid specialised courses for foreign applicants, for example the one-term programme in East and Central European Studies at Charles University. Graduates receive a certificate of study.

Each year the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport offers scholarships to foreign nationals, pursuant to bilateral intergovernmental or inter-ministerial agreements concluded with a number of countries (see Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation). Scholarships are awarded to applicants nominated by the competent authorities of eligible countries.

Scholarships of this type are designed for students or graduates and Ph.D. candidates of higher education institutions (exceptionally also for university researchers/teachers) who wish to have a study or research stay at one of the higher education institutions. Their length usually ranges from 2 to 10 months depending upon the agreement made by the Czech government and the foreign government concerned, which also specifies the categories of eligible recipients.

Most frequently, scholarship-holders are admitted for research visits (i.e. they either attend non-degree courses of their choice, or pursue an independent research activity at the host institutions, depending on their qualifications and preferences). Since the courses they follow in the Czech Republic do not lead to the award of a degree, they are not required to sit any entrance examinations.

The applicants for research stays need not necessarily be proficient in the Czech language, unless its knowledge is a prerequisite for admission due to the nature of the selected field of study/research. If they cannot demonstrate adequate knowledge of Czech, a good command of English is normally required (less frequently knowledge of French or German may suffice, depending on the field and university selected).

It is also possible to apply for a study stay at a vysoká škola (i.e. enrolment in a standard study programme with tuition in the Czech language for the period of scholarship specified in the respective intergovernmental/inter-ministerial agreement). In this case, a good command of the Czech language is a must and admission may be conditional upon successfully passing an entrance examination.

According to he Annual report about the state of the higher education in the Czech Republic in 2011 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports 8 874 foreign students came to study to the Czech Republic through mobility programmes in 2011. 

Other information is available on the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports website or through the Czech embassies of eligible countries.


Study Stays of Czech Students Abroad

All higher education institutions (vysoké školy) offer their bachelor, masters and also doctroral degree students study stays at their partner higher education institutions abroad. In view of the autonomy of higher education institutions, the conditions are not set centrally and information on them is available from individual institutions. Exchanges are usually based either on direct cooperation between universities/faculties or on an international programme or intergovernmental agreement. According to the Annual report about the state of the higher education in the Czech Republic in 2011 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports 11 867 students were sent through mobility programmes to study abroad in 2011.

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports supports the international mobility of students at public higher education institutions within its Strategic Plan. The aim is to enable every interested and competent student to study abroad for at least some period of study.

The important tools for partnership cooperation of higher education institutions are mainly European programmes, Tempus, programmes of cooperation of EU and other countries (US, Japan, etc.). The most important one within the Lifelong Learning Programme is Erasmus. Apart from this programme, higher education institutions cooperate internationally within other programmes, e.g. Development programmes of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports CEEPUS, which is focused on multilateral cooperation between countries of central and Eastern Europe, the Aktion Czech Republic – Austria – programme of cooperation in science and research between Czech Republic and Austria. Higher education institutions have to prepare their own strategies of bilateral mobility and follow-up projects, which can be included in the relevant international programme or development project.

The projects can be submitted by public higher education institutions which wish to send students on the basis of international agreements and within direct contractual cooperation of universities/faculties, or as free movers. The higher education institution takes responsibility for the selection of students and ensures that the part of study which the student spends abroad will be recognised. For further details, see the website of the Ministry.

International Visegrad Fund (IVF) which was established 9 June 2000 (see Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education). should contribute to the development of closer cooperation and strengthen mutual ties in the fields of culture, science and research, education, youth exchanges, tourism and cross-border cooperation among Central European countries.

As part of its international activities the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports concludes international agreements on cooperation within its sphere of action. Agreements are supplemented by cultural agreements and sectoral contracts with the partner ministries abroad.

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports has established the Centre for International Services and within it the Academic Information Agency (AIA) to carry out tasks relating to international relations in education.

The Ministry of Education through the Academic Information Agency publishes detailed information on scholarships offered on the base of international agreements, information on study opportunities abroad at the student’s own expense and scholarships stays offered by foreign subjects not included in international agreements.

The Agency:

  • collects, processes and disseminates information on opportunities to study abroad for Czech citizens, especially higher education students, graduates and teachers;
  • arranges tenders for scholarship stays abroad on the basis of international agreements;
  • releases information on other scholarships offered outside the framework of intergovernmental agreements and other offers of studies abroad on its web site;
  • cooperates on ensuring the training and observation stages for teachers of basic school (základní škola) and upper secondary school (střední škola) (mainly in German speaking countries and France);
  • assures activities of the national coordinator of the Council of Europe’s PESTALOZZI programme for continuing education of teachers;
  • arranges contacts for English language lectors (native speakers) for basic schools and upper secondary schools;
  • issues the AIA information Bulletin which lists the complete offer of scholarship stays abroad on the basis of international agreements for the next academic year.

For details including current offers see the website of the Centre for International Services.

Students use opportunities to study at universities abroad in virtually all continents. Besides European countries, they study at higher education institutions in Northern and South America, Asia, Africa and Australia.

Projects within development programmes can also be developed for the support of foreign students who do not come within the framework of any other programme of mobility, especially at Master's and Doctoral levels.

Higher education institutions recognise the necessity of sending their students abroad during their studies. For this reason, a number of higher education institutions have established their own funds to support student mobility and either use them for co-financing activities which cannot be fully covered by a grant or to support mobility within their own priorities.


Recognition of Higher Education

A graduate of a foreign higher education institution can ask for recognition in the Czech Republic of his/her higher education or some part of this education. Where the Czech Republic is bound by an international treaty with a country in which the higher education institution is established and recognized the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, is authorized by this treaty to grant such recognition. In all other cases, the graduate applies to a public higher education institution providing a degree programme that has similar contents. The public higher education institution issues the certificate based on its knowledge of the quality of the foreign higher education institution in question or based on the extent of knowledge and acquired skills evinced by the higher education qualification. These provisions apply in an analogous fashion to individual examinations taken at higher education institutions abroad, where it is not a case of a joint degree programme with a partner higher education institution. Decisions pertaining to the recognition by a public higher education institution of higher education and qualifications acquired abroad are made by the rector (rektor). This recognition is based on the original or a legally attested copy of a diploma, certificate or similar document issued by the foreign higher education institution, or the original or a legally attested copy of a diploma supplement and supplementary information confirming that the degree programme was carried out by an institution authorised to provide education comparable to higher education as well as information on the contents of the higher education studies abroad. If requested, an officially certified translation of these documents must be presented.

Unless otherwise provided for in an international treaty, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports or public higher education institution may require the authenticity of signatures and stamps on the original documentation issued by the foreign higher education institution to be verified by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the country in which the higher education institution that issued the document is domiciled, or by a relevant foreign body and the relevant embassy of the Czech Republic.

In the case of an individual who has been granted international protection in the form of asylum or subsidiary protection in the Czech Republic or some other member state of the European Union, or who on the basis of international commitments the Czech Republic is obliged to regard as a refugee or exile or a person in a situation similar to that of refugees, the document required and the verification of authenticity required pursuant to the subsections may be replaced by a sworn statement made by the individual in question concerning the facts otherwise attested to by such a document or verification.


Academic Staff Mobility

The mobility of academic staff of public higher education institutions is similarly as the mobility of students also a priority of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports included in its Strategic Plan for the Scholarly, Scientific, Research, Development, Innovation, Artistic and Other Creative Activities of Higher Education Institutions for 2011-2015. Within the priority Openness, point Internationalisation in education it is stated that the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports will:

  • support programmes focusing on the mobility of students and staff of higher education institutions;
  • seek to establish suitable conditions for the permanent employment of foreign experts in academia (this concerns, inter alia, the international comparability of the system of academic posts).

Recommendations for higher education institutions is as follows

  • long-term mobility should be part of career progression for academic staff, and mobility should also be a commonplace for other (administrative) staff at higher education institutions.

Within the International cooperation of higher education institutions in the area of research, development and innovation the higher education institutions are advised to

  • to support two-way international mobility of researchers at higher education institutions.

The Strategic Plan is annually updated. In the 2013 update it is recommended to the higher education institutions to among others promote mobility from their own resources and to focus on the quality and content of foreign stays.

The mobility of academic staff is also mentioned in the Strategy for Lifelong Learning in the CR as means to develop their quality in teaching and research.
Mobility within the research activities of academic staff is included in the National Policy of Research, Development and Innovation of the Czech Republic for years 2009 to 2015. One of the objectives of this policy is to "Provide quality human resources for R & D". Therefore, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports should announce programmes to support researchers (particularly doctoral students and young researchers) to complete research fellowships at major European and world workplaces.For the mobility of doctoral students see the part on Student Mobility.

Higher education institutions prepare annual reports on their activities in which they are obliged to provide information on their involvement in international educational programmes and international research and development programmes, including the mobility of students and academic staff.
The mobilities are carried out within:

  • Internal agreements between universities or between faculties;
  • Programmes of international cooperation (within the Life-long learning programmes and other programmes);
  • International agreements;
  • Research and other grant aided projects and programmes focused on the support of scientific projects.

Closing inter-institutional agreements and agreements between the faculties is fully the responsibility of individual higher education institutions and faculties. Agreements are concluded on the basis of the specific subjects of cooperation. The travel expenses are usually covered by the sending higher education institution and accommodation is paid by the receiving institution.

According to he Annual report about the state of the higher education in the Czech Republic in 2011 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports 3 122 academic and other workes were sent abroad through mobility programmes in 2011 and 1 917 academic and other workers came to the Czech Republic.

Within the Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP), the programme Erasmus is used for the mobility of academic staff. The programme offers two activities focused on the mobility of academic staff:

  • Staff mobility for teaching stay – teaching at a foreign school lasting between 5 teaching hours and 5 to 6 weeks,
  • Staff mobility for training – training in a foreign organisation lasting from 1 to 6 weeks.

It is also possible to carry out the mobility of academic staff via programmes outside the LLP – through programmes Erasmus Mundus, Tempus, FM EHP/Norsko, SCIEX-NMSch, CEEPUS and Aktion.

Academic staff can also travel abroad within the programmes of cooperation in the area of higher education between the European Commission and countries outside of Europe (e.g. EU-Canada co-operation in higher education, training and youth). These programmes are run by the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA).

The Czech Republic is a member state of the CEI Univesity Network (CEI UniNet) which propomotes regional cooperation of higher education institutions in Europe, mainly through the mobility of students and teaching staff.

The Czech Republic has international agreements with some countries. These are concluded by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and include an offer of short stay scholarship programmes abroad, as well as a number of places, length of a stay and requirements on applicants, etc.

The offer of scholarship stays abroad on the basis of international agreements is displayed on the website of the Academic Information Agency (AIA), see Mobility in Higher Education.

There are two ways for allocation of places for scholarship stays:

  • Breaking down the quotas (individual higher education institutions are allocated a certain number of scholarships; students are selected directly by the higher education institution).
  • Competition (scholarships are for all higher education institutions in the Czech Republic, AIA runs the selection procedure).

As a financial source of academic staff mobility higher education institutions may, in some years, also use Development programmes. They are declared annually by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The aim of Development programmes may vary from year to year, but the mobility of academic staff is usually included.

Many foreign trips of academic staff are carried out within the scientific cooperations. They are funded by grants for specific research project. The main providers of grants in the Czech Republic are the Czech Science Foundation (GACR), the Technology Agency of the CR and the individual ministries.

Czech research workers can also apply for scholarships for a specific research project where the funds are provided by foreign programmes. For example, the Fulbright programme is focused on cooperation between the U.S. and the Czech Republic and the French programme Copernic is intended for Central and Eastern European countries. Research stays for academic staff are offered also by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

Travelling scholarship to research workers is included in annual programmes of some Czech foundations e.g. The Czech Literary Fund and Josef, Marie and Zdeněk Hlávka Fund.

To support the mobility of researchers, the  Czech Mobility Centre at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic was established in 2005. It belongs to the European Services Network - EURAXESS and its aim is to provide the information and services needed for the stays of international researcher in the Czech Republic and since 2008 also of Czech researchers abroad. The network of regional co-operating points was created at higher education institutions. The project is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports within the programme EUPRO.

In 2009 within the National Research Programme II, an important research project "International Mobility of Academic Staff" of the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (Centrum pro studium vysokého školství)  and The Jan Amos Komensky University Prague (UJAK) took place. The project also included the interviews of administrators of international mobilities with selected foreign higher education institutions. In terms of financing the mobilities at these institutions three categories were identified:

  • Mobility within the European Lifelong Learning Programme, in particular Erasmus;
  • Mobility within CEEPUS and Aktion;
  • Mobilities financed by the faculties;
  • Individual mobilities financed by Grant Agencies – Czech Science Foundation (GACR), The Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the CR - on the basis of bilateral agreements.

Short stays prevailed.