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Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

The Constitution describes the Czech Republic as a sovereign, unitary and democratic state where the rule of law applies and where the people are the source of all state power. It is implemented through legislative, executive and judiciary bodies. Part of the constitutional order of the Czech Republic is the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms.

The public administration is provided by central state administration and territorial self – government, its role increased remarkably as a result of decentralisation in 2001-2003.

The state administration in education is described in the chapter Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level and in the chapter Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Resolution of the Cabinet of the Czech National Council on promulgation of the Charter of Fndamental Rights and Freedoms

The Constitution of the Czech Republic



The Legislative Branch

Legislative authority in the Czech Republic belongs to a Parliament composed of two chambers; the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Chamber of Deputies consists of 200 members of Parliament who are elected for a four-year term of office. The Senate consists of 81 senators elected for a six-year term of office. One third of senators are elected every two years.

Every citizen of the Czech Republic aged 18 or more has the right to vote. Members are elected through a secret ballot based on general, equal and direct suffrage: to the Lower House using the proportional representation system, to the Senate using the simple majority system.

Both chambers set up committees and commissions as their own bodies. In the Chamber of Deputies, the education sector is represented by the Committee for Science, Education, Culture, Youth and Sports; and in the Senate, by the Committee for Education, Science, Culture, Human Rights and Petitions.

A deputy, a group of deputies, the Senate, the Cabinet or a regional assembly may initiate new legislation. A bill is submitted to the Cabinet for comments, passed by the Chamber of Deputies and then by the Senate.


Legislation and Bibliography:

The Constitution of the Czech Republic



The Executive Branch

The executive branch is made up of the President and the Cabinet. These bodies fulfil their role with a division of powers.

In 2013 the President was elected for the first time in the direct presidential election by the citizens older than 18 years in the second ballot system. The term of office is five-years. The President is the head of state and represents the state externally. He or she is not accountable to anybody for his/her activities. The Cabinet, however, is responsible for the president's decisions if they need to be co-signed by the prime minister or another authorised member of the government. The President appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister and Cabinet members.

The Cabinet is the supreme executive authority and is accountable to the Chamber of Deputies. The executive bodies also include, apart from the Cabinet, ministries and other administrative bodies. These may be set up and their function defined only by law.

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is responsible for the concept, form and development of the education system. The organising bodies of schools in other sectors are the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of the Interior. In social issues, the labour market and career guidance, the Ministry of Education co-operates with the Ministry of Social Affairs. In health education, the Ministry of Education co-operates with the Ministry of Health.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Bodies of the Administration of the Czech Socialist Republic



Territorial Administration and Self-government

The Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, which are the basic territorial self-governing units, and regions, which are the higher self-governing territorial units. A Municipality is always a part of a region.

Territorial self-government units are public corporations with their own property, administered by elected bodies for a four-year term of office. They are responsible for the overall development of their territory and for the needs of their citizens and in performing their tasks; they must protect the public interest.

In some cases, laid down by the law, the execution of state administration can be delegated to self-governing bodies. The law defines when the self-governing units are also administrative districts.

The municipalities and regions have a double sphere of authority on their territory – independent for allocated responsibilities, including education, and delegated for the execution of state administration. The authority of the regions in education is described in the section on Administration and Governance at Regional Level and the authority of the municipalities is described in the section on Administration and Governance at Local Level


Municipalities

A Municipality is administered by a board of representatives (zastupitelstvo obce) headed by a mayor (starosta) elected from among the board's members. Other bodies are the municipal council (rada obce), municipal authority (obecní úřad) and special municipal bodies. If a municipality is a statutory town, it is headed by a city mayor (primátor) and the municipal authority is called the magistrát. A city can be divided into smaller territories – the city districts also being administered by a local administration headed by a mayor.

The municipal council is an executive body with independent responsibilities and it is answerable to the board of representatives. The municipality can establish legal entities and organisation bodies.

In the sphere of transferred responsibilities a municipal council can make decisions only if allowed for by law. The municipality executes the transferred responsibilities in its administration district or in a district composed of several neighbouring municipalities established by a special law. Commissioned municipal authorities (pověřené obecní úřady) were constituted for specific purposes. For other issues, including education, municipalities with extended competences (obce s rozšířenou působností) were constituted, whose municipal authorities hold the transferred responsibilities in their districts.

The municipal authority consists of a mayor, deputy mayor, secretary of the municipal authority where this function is established, and the employees.

The municipal council can establish commissions as its initiating and advisory bodies. The commissions submit their statements and proposals to the municipal council. Commissions are executive bodies when the transferred responsibilities have been entrusted to them.

The authority of the municipalities is described in the section on Administration and Governance at Local Level.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Municipalities

Constitutional Act on Creation of Higher Territorial Autonomous Units

Regions

A region is administered by a board of representatives, headed by a governor (hejtman) elected from among its members. Other bodies include a regional council, a regional authority and special regional boards. One of these is a regional council for human resources development composed of representatives of regional self-government and social partners.

The regional council is an executive body with independent responsibilities, responsible to the board of representatives. The regional council makes decisions on transferred responsibilities when this is allowed for by law.

The regional authority executes the transferred responsibilities with the exception of matters that are delegated by law to the boards of representatives, to the council or to a special body. It is headed by a director, who is the employee of the region. The regional authority is divided into departments and units. Among the responsibilities of a regional authority with transferred responsibilities is the supervision of the independent and transferred performance of municipalities.

The board of representatives can establish committees as initiating and advisory bodies. It always establishes a committee for education and employment.
A regional council establishes commissions as its initiating and counselling bodies.

In the execution of transferred responsibilities, the bodies of territorial self-government are responsible to the relevant ministry.

The authority of the regions is described in the section on Administration and Governance at Regional Level.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Regions