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Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

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Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Initial training of professionals working at settings for children under 3 years of age (zařízení péče o děti do 3 let) according to the Trade Licensing Act and in child groups (dětské skupiny; children from 1 to 6/7 years of age) differs by the job description. The minimum upper secondary education (ISCED 344 or 354 or 353) is required. The initial training (apart from the initial training of pre-primary teachers) is not carried out within the pedagogical staff education system. For more see the section Settings for children under 3 years of age and child groups.


The initial training of teachers in pre-primary to upper secondary education (nursery, basic and upper secondary schools – mateřská škola, základní škola, střední škola) is determined by the level of education the teacher is being prepared for and by each individual's area of specialisation. Depending on this, the teacher must have completed higher education (a Master's or a Bachelor's degree), tertiary professional education or secondary education. For more details on the initial training of teachers for each individual educational level see the following section.

A teaching qualification is necessary for teachers from pre-primary to secondary levels (although the specialisation is sufficient for teachers of tertiary professional institutions – vyšší odborné školy).

Higher education of teachers can be either concurrent or consecutive. At present, study in the majority of study fields is already structured in Bachelor's and consecutive Master's study (with the exception of teacher training for the first stage of a basic school – the primary level, which is usually a 5-year undivided Master's study). There is no in-service qualifying phase or transitional period between the training and employment set for starting teachers at any level of education. Teacher training is a part of their study.

For information on methods of consecutive pedagogical study see Continuing Professional Development for Teachers.


Qualification Extent (Specialisation)

Teachers for the first stage of basic school are qualified to teach all subjects taught at this stage. Teachers of other educational levels may be qualified to teach more subjects (most frequently two subjects) or just one subject (as, for example, language teachers, teachers of various artistic subjects and physical education, teachers of vocational subjects or teachers of practical training). Nevertheless, university graduates of pedagogical programmes are qualified to teach all of the subjects at the given educational level/stage, regardless of their specialisation.

Teachers in classes and schools for pupils with special educational needs must have a special educational qualification.


Specific teacher qualification requirements for teaching arts subjects, physical education, foreign languages and religion

Initial training for teachers of arts subjects (music and art), physical education and foreign languages, who teach in basic and secondary schools and conservatoires follows the same rules as the initial training of teachers of primary and secondary general level (see Primary Education and Secondary Education – General Subjects). However, the Act on Education Staff also stipulates other possibilities of qualification acquisition:

  • Teachers of music and art at schools on the primary and lower secondary education level can complete the study field Teaching for Basic Art Schools.
  • Artistic vocational subjects at upper secondary school, conservatoire or basic art school (základní umělecké školy) can be taught also by a person who is or was an art performer but has not a required qualification (qualification is recognised only for subjects relevant to his/her specialisation and for the specific school).
  • Physical education in lower and upper secondary education can be taught by graduates of programmes focused on physical education and sports (not only the graduates of the study field for teachers).
  • Foreign languages at both stages of basic schools and at upper secondary schools can be taught by persons acquiring qualification for teaching at language schools authorised to organise state language examination (see the section on Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training). Since 2015 an educational worker whose mother language is the relevant foreign language or has mastered the foreign language at the level of mother language and who is higher education graduate (in the case of conversation in a foreign language – upper secondary education completed with school-leaving education) in any study field even in non-teaching specialisation is also considered to be fully qualified for foreign language teaching or conversation in a foreign language.
  • Religious education at all educational levels can be taught by Master's degree graduates in Theological studies (initial teacher training is not required) or Pedagogical/Social sciences (followed by initial teacher training).


Other Exemptions

Since 2015 the school head can under some circumstances recognise the professional qualification also to persons mentioned below that do not fulfil the basic prerequisites. Such a teacher can work only half-time and a part of this working relationship he/she has to perform relevant activities (art performance, art creation, coaching or activities in the field in which he/she is a recognised specialist). The exemption is recognised only for the time when all conditions are satisfied. The prerequisite is recognised:

  • at second stage for basic schools and upper secondary schools to art performers, fine art artists and qualified coaches and only for teaching of subjects related to the art and coach qualification;
  • at second stage of basic schools to teachers qualified to teach artistic vocational subjects at upper secondary schools and only for teaching of subjects related to their specialisation;
  • at upper secondary schools to recognised field specialist and only for teaching of subject related to his/her field specialisation.

In some cases the qualification can be forgiven completely. See the section on Entry to the Profession.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Child Group

Act on Educational Staff

Trade Licensing Act



Institutions, Level and Models of Training

For more information on initial training for professionals at setting for children under 3 years of age (zařízení péče o děti do 3 let) and in child groups (dětské skupiny) see the section on Professionals at Settings for Children under 3 Years of Age.


A Master's degree is the prevailing requirement for the training of education staff (teachers). Nevertheless, it is sufficient for teachers to have completed tertiary professional or secondary education and to have passed their school-leaving examination to work as a teacher at a nursery school (mateřská škola); as a teacher of practical education and job training at an upper secondary school (střední škola) or a tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola); as a teacher of arts subjects in a basic art school (základní umělecká škola), upper secondary school or tertiary professional school. In all the above-mentioned cases, the teacher has to have a teaching qualification with the exception of tertiary professional school, where a pedagogical qualification is not required (see more in the part on Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education). Teacher training can have a concurrent form (academic and professional educational study is combined) or a consecutive one (graduates of the academic fields fulfil their educational qualification in Bachelor's study or in further education).



Settings for children under 3 Years of Age and Child Groups

Settings for Children under 3 Years of Age

Qualification requirements for healthcare professionals working at settings for children under 3 years of age (zařízení péče o děti do 3 let). Persons who carry out a qualification from the following list of the jobs may become professionals at these settings:

  • a pre-primary teacher (učitel mateřské školy): upper secondary education (ISCED 344 or 354), tertiary professional education (ISCED 655) or higher education (ISCED 645 or 746) in a relevant study field; for more details see Pre-primary Education
  • a practical nurse (všeobecná sestra): relevant Bachelor's study programme (ISCED 645) or tertiary professional education (ISCED 655); the study is planned for the minimum of 3 years and covers 4600 hours (in tertiary professional education usually 3.5 years), at least half of study hours is carried out in practical training
  • a midwife (porodní asistentka): relevant Bachelor's study programme (ISCED 645), the study is planned for the minimum of 3 years and covers 4600 hours, at least half of study hours is carried out in practical training
  • an emergency care professional (zdravotnický záchranář): relevant Bachelor's study programme (ISCED 645) or tertiary professional education (ISCED 655), the study is planned for the minimum of 3 years and covers the minimum of 1800 hours in practical training
  • a healthcare professional (zdravotnický asistent): relevant upper secondary education (ISCED 354), the study is planned for the minimum of 4 years and covers at least 900 hours in practical training
  • a healthcare assistant (ošetřovatel): relevant upper secondary education (ISCED 353), the study is planned for the minimum of 3 years and covers at least 700 hours in practical training
  • a hospital assistant (všeobecný sanitář): lower secondary education (ISCED 244) is the prerequisite for diploma in accredited qualifying programme, the study covers the minimum of 100 hours of theoretical and 50 hours of practical training
  • a social worker (sociální pracovník): relevant Bachelor's (ISCED 645) or Master's study programme (ISCED 746 or 747) or Doctoral study programme (ISCED 844) or tertiary professional education (ISCED 655)
  • a social services assistant (pracovník v sociálních službách): lower secondary education (ISCED 244) is the prerequisite for a diploma in the accredited qualifying programme, the study is planned for the minimum of 150 hours and covers 80 hours in practical training, completed upper secondary education (ISCED 3) in the relevant study programmes is accepted
  • a nanny for children under school age (chůva pro děti do zahájení povinné školní docházky): upper secondary education (ISCED 344 or 354) is the prerequisite to obtain a professional qualification certificate for nannies (previous formal education is not required), see also the section on National Qualification Framework

The specification of standard education for these professions is specified in the brackets. On top of the previously mentioned, alternative ways of obtaining a professional qualification could be defined and a qualification or qualifications obtained based on applicable regulations are accepted. 


Child Group

Caring individuals can have a capacity (special qualification, professional capacity, special capacity or professional qualification) for performance of some professions mentioned bellow. (If details are not mentioned – see above the list of qualifications for professionals in settings for children under 3 years of age according to the Trade Licensing Act):

  • a practical nurse (všeobecná sestra)
  • a midwife (porodní asistentka)
  • an emergency care professional (zdravotnický záchranář)
  • a healthcare professional (zdravotnický asistent)
  • a healthcare assistant (ošetřovatel)
  • a health-social worker (zdravotně-sociální pracovník): accredited health Bachelor's or Master's study programme in social specialisation (ISCED 645 or 746), at least three year study programme in social specialisation at tertiary professional schools or higher education institutions (ISCED 645, 655 or 746) and accredited qualifying programme or qualification of a practical nurse and specialised study programme
  • a physician (lékař): six years Master's study programme at higher education institution (ISCED 746)
  • a health services psychologist (psycholog ve zdravotnictví) or special capacity to perform a profession of clinical psychologist (klinický psycholog): at least five years of one-field of Master's study programme of psychology (ISCED 746) and accredited qualifying programme or specialised education
  • a social worker (sociální pracovník)
  • a social services assistant (pracovník v sociálních službách)
  • a pre-primary teacher (učitel mateřské školy)
  • a primary teacher (učitel prvního stupně základní školy): qualification requirements are included in the section on primary education (see Primary Education);
  • educational childcare staff (vychovatel): qualification requirement are included in the relevant section on other education staff in the chapter Management and Other Education
  • a nanny for children under school age (chůva pro děti do zahájení povinné školní docházky)


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Child Group

Act on Education Staff

Trade Licensing Act



Pre-primary Education

In the upper secondary schools (střední školy), future teachers of a nursery school (mateřská škola) usually take a four-year course specialising in the Pedagogy of Pre-School Education and Extra-Curricular Activities. The typical total length of training for the future teachers of pre-primary education is 9 years of a basic school and 4 years of an upper secondary school, ending with the school-leaving examination, leading to ISCED 354 level of education. Teaching is carried out according to the approved Framework Educational Programme (FEP) for this field of study (for more on FEP for secondary vocational education, see the section on Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education). The School Educational Framework defines the minimum of 10 weeks in practical training and the minimum of 7 weeks in instructional training for the whole time of study. Post-secondary education is provided within upper secondary schools.

The typical total length of training at the tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) consists of 9 years of a basic school, 4 years of an upper secondary school, ending with a school-leaving examination, and 3 years of tertiary professional school. Graduates achieve ISCED level 655. According to the Education Act and to the relevant regulation, the teaching must include practical and professional training. The length of the trainings is set by the accredited study programmes. Only in one school (there are two schools carrying out programmes of the Pre-primary and extracurricular education) students participate in both uninterrupted and parallel teaching practice.

Since 1970, it has been possible to qualify as a nursery school teacher at some higher education institutions (vysoké školy). Training in a Bachelor's programme lasts 3 years. At some faculties of education, it is also possible to study a two-year follow-up Master's study programme. The typical total length of training consists of 9 years of a basic school, 4 years of an upper secondary school ending with a school-leaving examination, and of 3 years of Bachelor's studies at the faculty of education. Teaching practice is an important element of the training. Study programmes include parallel and uninterrupted teaching practice in the length of few weeks.

Currently, newly admitted students who enter the initial teacher training programme for pre-primary education are equally distributed between upper secondary schools and tertiary education institutions. However, it is still the traditional upper secondary education, which predominates among teachers in pre-primary education.


Alternative Pathways

Since 2005, some persons who completed their study programme in special pedagogy at a higher education institution or, since 2012, also at a tertiary professional school are qualified as nursery school teachers.

Since 2012, it is also possible to attain the qualification of nursery school teacher in life-long study programme specialised to train nursery school teachers. This ways is intended for individuals who completed their study programme in Teacher Training for Primary Schools (ISCED 100) or Training for Educational Childcare Staff, Training for Teachers of Leisure Activities or the study programme Pedagogy or a field of study for training educational childcare staff at tertiary professional schools.

Teachers who completed the upper secondary education in the study programme for educational childcare staff are obliged to take a part of the secondary school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška) relating to the teaching in pre-primary education (for more information see the section on Alternative Training Pathways).


Teachers of preparatory classes (přípravné třídy) in primary education gain their qualification either as pre-primary teachers (see above) or primary teachers (for more information see the section on Primary Education).


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on In-service Training of Education Staff

Education Act

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education 

Higher Education Act



Primary Education

The responsibility for the preparatory education of teachers for the first stage of the basic school (základní škola) rests solely with the faculties of education. It is at a Master's level and usually lasts 5 years. Graduates are qualified to teach all of the subjects at the first stage of a basic school, they can also specialise in a chosen subject at some schools.

The typical total length of training for future teachers is 9 years of a basic school, 4 years of an upper secondary school (střední škola) ending with the school-leaving examination, and 4 to 5 years of Master's study at a faculty of education, leading to a qualification at ISCED 746 level.

The type and length of the professional training differs at individual universities (there are pre-service, parallel and uninterrupted teaching practice). The Accreditation Commission recommends the minimum of 4 weeks of professional training, in practice students usually take more than 4 weeks.


Alternative Pathways

Individuals who completed a Master's study programme in special pedagogy in which framework they gained knowledge in methodology of the first stage subjects can also teach at primary level. These programmes are also offered by other than faculties of education.

Graduates of Master's study field of Pedagogy or Bachelor's / Master's study programmes in educational sciences intended for training of pre-primary teachers (učitel mateřské školy), educational childcare staff (vychovatel) or teachers of leisure activities (pedagog volného času) can attain the qualification for teaching at primary level in life-long study programme aiming at preparation of primary teachers which is organised at higher education institutions (vysoké školy).

Teachers may gain other qualification pathways for teaching specific subjects (foreign languages, artistic subjects, religion). See the introduction to the section on Initial Education of Teachers.


Teachers of preparatory classes (přípravné třídy) in primary education gain their qualification either as pre-primary teachers (for more information see the section on Pre-primary education.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on in-service training of education staff

Higher Education Act



Secondary education – general subjects

Teachers of general subjects at the second stage of the basic school (základní škola), at upper secondary schools (střední škola) and at conservatoires (konzervatoř) must have a Master's qualification. Accredited study programmes at most faculties already follow the two-stage structure (usually a three-year Bachelor's and a consecutive two-year Master's study programme).

The most important institutions for the initial training of teachers of general subjects are the faculties of education. The teachers can also gain their qualification at other faculties, e.g. of art, of natural sciences, mathematics and physics, or at faculties of physical education and sports, in the fields of Teacher Training for secondary schools (this qualification is also valid for the second stage of the basic school).

Teachers may also qualify by studying for a Master's degree in the field of study which corresponds to the subject to be taught (and not focused on teacher training), and by consecutive higher education study in a Bachelor's study programme or in a life-long learning programme in pedagogical sciences which trains teachers of general subjects at the required school level. A professional qualification for Physical Education can also be obtained by the completion of the Master‘s study programme aimed at physical education and sport.

Teachers of foreign languages, physical education, arts subjects, and religion may gain their qualification in other ways. For more details see in the introduction to the section on Initial Education of Teachers.

The typical total length of the training of future teachers in concurrent studies is 9 years of a basic school, 4 years of an upper secondary school ending with a school-leaving examination, 3–4 years of Bachelor's studies and 1–3 of Master's studies at a higher education institution (vysoká škola). Pedagogical training of graduates from non-pedagogical fields of studies usually represents a further 3-year Bachelor's study programme or 2 years of studies in a life-long learning study programme at a higher education institution (it is not required for Physical Education teachers who graduated in the study fields aimed at physical education and sport). At the end of the study the teacher has the qualification at ISCED 7 level (ISCED 747 in the case of Bachelor's study programme and follow-up Master's study programme or ISCED 746 in the case of Master's non-structured study programme).

The type and length of the professional training differs at individual higher education institutions. The Accreditation Commission recommends a minimum of 4 weeks of professional training.

Teachers are normally qualified in two subjects. A teacher who is fully professionally qualified in a teacher training programme at a certain education level can teach other subjects than those which he/she has specialised in (it is not valid for teachers who attained the qualification of the bases of one of exemptions). Teachers of the second stage of a basic school and teachers at upper secondary school/conservatoire are trained together or separately (in this case the qualification for upper secondary level is applicable for teaching at lower secondary level, in the opposite case, teachers must complete a qualification in further education). For more details see the section on Transmission of qualification levels.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on in-service training of education staff

Higher Education Act



Upper secondary education – vocational subjects

In vocational education, there are teachers of general subjects as well as:

  • teachers of theoretical vocational subjects
  • teachers of artistic vocational subjects at an upper secondary school (střední škola), conservatoire (konzervatoř), and basic art school (základní umělecká škola)
  • teachers of practical education (praktické vyučování)
  • teachers of practical training (odborný výcvik).


The teachers of theoretical vocational subjects study for Master's degrees (usually following a Bachelor's programmes) at various types of higher education institutions (vysoké školy) or faculties. Only at individual universities in some fields (e.g. technical, economic, medical or theological), the training is concurrent. Most often, the consecutive model is used – teachers have to gain a teaching qualification after their technical (academic) training:

  • in a three-year Bachelor's study in pedagogical sciences for Teacher Training Programme for Secondary Schools;
  • through studies in life-long learning programmes at higher education institutions aimed at teacher training for secondary schools which lasts 250 lessons minimum;
  • or through the study of pedagogy for at least 120 lessons in institutions for in-service training of education staff.

The graduate qualification corresponds to the level ISCED 7 (ISCED 747 in the case of study of Bachelor' programme and follow-up Master's programme or ISCED 746 in the case of Master's non-structured programme). The typical total length of the training of future vocational subject teachers includes 9 years of a basic school, 4 years of a secondary school with the school-leaving examination, a 3 to 4 year Bachelor's degree and a 1 to 3 year Master's degree (or 4 to 5 year of undivided concurrent Master's degree study programmes, which are currently in decline, being replaced by the two-stage model), and usually consecutive pedagogical training. The Accreditation Commission recommends the minimum of 4 weeks of professional training for the concurrent model.


Teachers of artistic vocational subjects at upper secondary schools, conservatoires and basic art schools can obtain their professional qualification as follows:

  • at higher education institutions of arts (the typical length is 9 years of basic school, 4 years of upper secondary school with the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška), 3 to 4 years of Bachelor's study (ISCED 645) or 1 to 3 years of Master's study (ISCED 747), and in the consecutive teacher's study;
  • teachers at basic art schools also in concurrent study in Mater's programmes focused on training of basic art schools' teachers or focused on training of teachers of the following general subjects: Playing the Instrument, Voice Performance or Visual arts (mostly at faculties of education);
  • in concurrent study at conservatoires – the typical length of training is 9 years of basic school (základní škola) and 6 years of conservatoire or 5 years of basic school and 8-year conservatoire (dance; ISCED 554) – or in consecutive study, in the case they acquired only the upper secondary education with school-leaving education in conservatoire (ISCED 354);
  • at tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborná škola) – the length of training is 9 years of basic school, 4 years of upper secondary school with the school-leaving examination and 3 years of tertiary professional school (ISCED 655) – and in the consecutive teacher's study;
  • or at upper secondary schools – the length of training is 9 years of basic school and 4 years of upper secondary school with the school-leaving examination (ISCED 354) and in the consecutive teacher's study.


Teachers of practical education and teachers of practical training get their vocational qualification in the fields of study which correspond to the nature of the practical education:

  • at higher education institutions (ISCED 645);
  • at tertiary professional schools (ISCED 655);
  • most frequently at upper secondary schools (with the final school-leaving examinations, ISCED 354, in the case of vocational training also final examination when school leavers obtain an apprenticeship certificate, ISCED 353).

They must also have a teaching qualification (see above – teacher of theoretical vocational subjects). Teacher training for practical education and practical training can be finished after 4 years of study at an upper secondary school, after 3 years at tertiary professional school or after 3–5 years of study at a higher education institution. Initial teacher training must follow.


The 2015 amendment introduced some exemptions which enable to employ also persons (mainly art performers, fine art artists and recognised specialists in the field) who have not qualification mentioned above. See more in the introduction to the section on Initial Education of Teachers.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on in-service training of education staff

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education

Government regulation on the system of fields of studies in basic, upper secondary and tertiary professional education 

Higher Education Act



Teachers in classes and schools for children, pupils or students with special educational needs

Teachers who carry out direct educational activity in classes or at schools for children or pupils with special educational needs may obtain their qualification in the same way as other teachers of the given educational level and extend it through a Bachelor's degree, specialising in special educational needs or through a life-long learning study programme with the same focus. In the case of the first and the second stage of special basic schools (základní škola speciální), teachers may obtain a qualification in a Master's study programme specialising in special needs pedagogy for teachers.

Teachers at nursery schools may qualify by studying special needs pedagogy at a higher education institution (studying programme focusing on the pre-school age also exists), however, a graduate of special need pedagogy differently specialised can teach in the nursery as well).


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Higher Education Act



Admission Requirements

Professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age and child groups

Requirements for admission into study programmes that provide qualifications for professionals working at setting for children under 3 years of age (zařízení péče o děti do 3 let) or in child groups (dětské skupiny) are similar to those in other study programmes of relevant levels: see the sections on admission requirements in the part on Upper secondary education, Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master structure (for tertiary professional schools – vyšší odborné školy), Bachelor's degree programmes and Second Cycle Programmes (Master's degrees programmes).


Education staff at schools

The following section focuses on the requirements for admission to study programmes providing concurrent teacher education or educational component in the case of teachers' continuing development.

The school heads at upper secondary schools, conservatoires and tertiary professional schools (střední škola, konzervatoř, vyšší odborná škola), set the specific criteria of the admission procedure and can decide if applicants will sit an entrance examination/aptitude test and about the content of the examination. The school heads are also responsible for determining the content and the form of the entrance examination/aptitude test that have to be in accordance with the relevant Framework Educational Programme. The date of application for upper secondary schools and conservatoires is set in accordance with the Education Act (for more information see the sections on admission to upper secondary schools and to conservatoires). Entry to study programmes for teachers and to other study programmes at tertiary professional schools and upper secondary schools is regulated by the capacity of any given school and by the long-term objectives of individual regions.

The requirements for admission to the upper secondary school courses which train for pre-primary teachers are identical to those for the admission to other courses for the upper secondary school, namely successful completion of compulsory schooling or successful completion of the basic education before completing the compulsory schooling and passing the admission proceedings. A further requirement is a good state of health. For more details see Organisation of Upper Secondary Education. The admission procedure usually includes an entrance examination (oral, and/or written and/or practical). A part of it is most often an interview and examination in the Czech language and Music, and also an examination in speech skills, art or physical education. A further requirement may be to have excellent marks in the study at the basic school (základní škola).

Admission to a conservatoire which trains teachers for the art vocational subjects requires passing the enrolment proceedings which take the form of an aptitude examination (see also Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)). All six-year courses require the student to have completed compulsory schooling or successfully to have completed basic education before completing compulsory schooling. Pupils who have successfully completed the 5th grade of a basic school may be accepted onto the eight-year courses.

Admission to a tertiary professional school for pre-primary teachers is conditional on passing a school-leaving examination at any upper secondary school. Applicants also have to have a good state of health. (See also Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure.) The admission usually includes a test of ability (in music and art) and tests aimed at identifying personality skills suitable for performance of the profession.


Higher education institutions training teachers admit students who have passed the school-leaving examination to Bachelor programmes and students with Bachelor degree to Master´s programmes (see First Cycle Programmes and Second Cycle Programmes). Setting up of the admission requirements is under the responsibility of each faculty or higher educational institution. The decision about whether an applicant is admitted or not to a higher education institution is under the responsibility of the dean (děkan) of the faculty (if the study programme is provided by the faculty) or the rector (if the study programme is provided by the higher education institution). The date of application is determined by the individual higher education institution. In general, admission to programmes of higher educational institutions, including teacher training, is primarily limited by the capacity of each institution. The number of places is influenced at the central level – by a per-capita amount allocated to the institution within formula funding – and at the institutional level – by the independent decision of the school on the number of students admitted to individual study fields and study forms.

Enrolment proceedings differ among faculties. In some cases, they consist of a written and an oral examination in the relevant subjects and an interview aimed at discovering the student's motivation and personal suitability for the studies as well as their overall cultural awareness, in others they take the form of a general written test. Some faculties admit all applicants without entrance examinations. For arts fields and physical education, and sometimes also for teaching at the first stage of a basic school, applicants must undergo a test of their abilities, which is a pre-condition for permission to take the above mentioned exams. Applicants for special pedagogy courses are usually required to have certain practical experience in working with the disabled.


Citizens of the Czech Republic, citizens of other European Union member states and persons who are authorized to reside in the Czech Republic have the same right to study in a study programme for teachers at all levels. There are neither requirements concerning the age of the applicants for study programmes for teachers at any level, nor are there any requirements concerning the place of residence of applicants to institutions of higher education.

Website www.infoabsolvent.cz, administered by the National Institute of Education, enables applicants search study programmes of upper secondary schools, tertiary professional schools and higher education institutions by level of education and by graduates qualification; the specific requirements for admission are also lists.


Legislation and bibliography:

Education Act

Higher Education Act



Curriculum, Level of Specialisation and Learning Outcomes

Curriculum of education of professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age (zařízení péče o děti do 3 let) and child groups (dětské skupiny) – see in separate section.


The differences in the content of training of future teachers at individual educational levels are described in six sections. There is no unified compulsory curriculum for teacher training at higher education institutions, but certain components are always present: education in a specific field (education in the field of future teaching), pedagogical education (psychological, pedagogical, didactic) and pedagogical practical training and general education (e.g. ICT or a foreign language). The extent of each mentioned component may vary.

Training associated with school management (i.e. school heads) is not included in the compulsory curriculum of prospective teachers.

Before 1989, the management of heterogeneous groups of pupils did not represent a particular problem because there was a tendency to create relatively homogenous groups of pupils in the Czech education system (with the exception of mixed age small classes). This changed gradually during the 1990s and a process of integrating children who are disadvantaged in terms of health or social condition into the general population was launched (see Educational Support and Guidance), and relevant legal regulations were gradually adopted. Institutions training educational staff should take the existing legislation into account. They should also take into consideration current curricular documents, general educational principles and current issues on knowledge of the world.

There is no general directive requiring teacher training to include developing the ability of future teachers to deal with pupils or their parents, although this is in fact generally included in the curriculum of each individual institution in some way.



Settings for children under 3 years of age and child groups

The content of education defined for professionals working at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups differs according to the category of profession. Students (partly with the exception of a children's nurse) are not initially prepared for the work at these institutions. The profession of nannies is specified for working with children under school age, the qualification is possible to get without previous formal education.

For the content of education of pre-primary teachers (učitelé mateřské školy) see the next section on Pre-primary education. The content of education of primary teachers (učitelé prvního stupně základní školy) is described in the section on Primary education. The content of education of educational childcare staff (vychovatel) at upper secondary schools issues from the centrally set framework education programmes; the staff is prepared mainly for the work during leisure activities. See also the section on Other Education Staff in the chapter Management and other education staff.

The content of study programmes at medical higher institutions (for positions: practical nurse, midwife, emergency care professional, physician, health-social workervšeobecná sestra, porodní asistentka, záchranář, lékař, zdravotně-sociální pracovník) is created by each school itself and comes under the accreditation of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports along with the declaration of the Ministry of Health. The similar procedure applies to programmes of tertiary professional education. Students attend study programmes designed for practical nurses, including subjects oriented on child education, which are not primarily formed for children's nurses. Practical nurses may develop their specialisation in children's care in continuing professional development of healthcare staff. The content of the field Psychology is accredited also by the Ministry of Education.

The Ministry of Education after consultation with the Ministry of Health publishes Framework Education Programme for upper secondary education in healthcare study programmes. Graduates of the study programmes for healthcare professional (zdravotnický asistent) and healthcare assistants (ošetřovatel) acquire basic knowledge in the field of childcare and psychology.

Creating educational programmes for social workers in tertiary professional and higher education lies within the responsibility of individual institutions and comes under the accreditation of the Ministry of Education. Training programmes for social services assistants come under the accreditation of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. The programmes are focused on basic knowledge in psychology, supportive methods of active learning, methods in education and education for leisure activities. The identical educational themes occur in the Framework Education Programmes for secondary education of social care positions (accredited by the Ministry of Education).


Legislation and bibliography:

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education


Higher Education Act

Pre-primary education

At the central level, the content of future teachers' training at upper secondary schools (střední školy) is determined by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The instruction follows the school educational programmes created according to the Framework Education Programme for the educational field Pedagogy of Pre-School Education and Extra-Curricular Activities. The timetable includes general subjects – e.g. Czech language, a foreign language, mathematics, social sciences education, natural sciences education, aesthetic education, health education, ICT education and physical education, and vocational education such as economy training, pedagogy and psychology, didactics of pedagogical activities (aesthetic and emotional education of children, fine arts, music education, music movement education, word and film art education, drama education etc.). The minimum number of weekly lessons for the whole period of education is 128, with a maximum of 140 lessons. The minimum number of lessons in the week is 29, the maximum is 35. The framework timetabling of the curriculum also contains a minimum number of 26 available lessons that help create the school's profile, strengthen lesson allowances in individual educational areas, support interest orientation of pupils or extend another foreign language tuition. Practical school placement with the minimum length of 10 weeks during the whole period of study and a teaching practice with the minimum length of 7 weekly lessons during the whole period of study are a compulsory part of the curriculum.

Tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) decide on the content of their courses independently. Since the 1st of January 2005, the educational programme has been subjected to accreditation (see also Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure).

The content of the curricula of higher education institutions (vysoké školy) is decided by each institution, and comes under the accreditation of the Ministry of Education (see First Cycle Programmes, Second Cycle Programmes, Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes).


Legislation and bibliography:

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education



Primary education

The faculties of education are totally autonomous as regards the proposed content and character of individual study programmes. However, the proposed study programmes are subject to accreditation (see Quality Assurance in Higher Education).

The initial training of teachers of the first stage of the basic school (základní škola) is a concurrent course. The curriculum generally consists of six basic modules:

  • a subject module (the basics of all educational areas taught at the first stage of the basic school);
  • a pedagogical and psychological module (including practical training);
  • a university basics module (philosophy, history, rhetoric, ecology, computer technology etc.);
  • a didactic module (theory and practice of teaching individual educational areas at the first stage of the basic school);
  • an upgrading module;
  • a specialisation module (the systematic study of the chosen specialisation – either one of the subjects focused only on educational care or language).

Each student usually chooses an area of specialisation – e.g. music, visual arts or physical education, foreign languages etc. The studies usually consist of ten terms, each of 12–15 weeks.


Legislation and bibliography:

Higher Education Act



Secondary education – general subjects

Faculties training teachers are completely autonomous with respect to the content and character of the individual study programmes, but proposed study programmes are subject to accreditation (see Quality Assurance in Higher Education).

The curriculum of teacher training in general subjects consists of subject studies and pedagogical training (teaching methodology, pedagogical and psychological courses and practical training), and possibly of general education (e.g. foreign language). Newly admitted students enter the structured models of study at all faculties.

The Bachelor's programme usually includes some pedagogical components but may be fully academic (mainly at non-educational faculties).

Usually after a two-year follow-up Master's programme, it is possible to obtain full qualification for teaching. These programmes mainly focus on the teaching of subjects and other pedagogical fields; students take teaching practice and develop knowledge in the given subject.

Graduates of Bachelor's study programmes focused on teaching do not have to study the follow-up Master's study programme in the case they have obtained a Master‘s degree in a different programme, because these Bachelor's study programmes include pedagogical disciplines.

The teachers at the compulsory lower secondary level or teachers of general subjects at upper secondary schools (střední školy) / conservatoires (konzervatoře) are usually qualified as subject specialists or semi-specialists. The subject combination of specialists depends on their choice at the beginning of their studies and can be selected from a list of combinations or from a list of individual subjects set by the faculty. The situation differs among faculties.

The study usually lasts 3 years in Bachelor's programme and 2 years in Master's programme. There are two terms in each school year, every term includes 13-15 weeks of lessons.


Legislation and bibliography:

Higher Education Act



Upper secondary education – vocational subjects

Teachers of theoretical vocational subjects at upper secondary schools are mainly trained as specialists in their fields in Master’s study programmes at higher education institutions, at some universities the concurrent model of study also exists (similarly as for teachers of general subjects, see the section Secondary education – general subjects).

The content of the art teacher training depends on the level of their education and the teaching (pedagogical) part of the training is similar to that for teachers of theoretical vocational subjects. Education at conservatoires includes a general, vocational (art) and pedagogical component – for more information see Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education). Some higher education programmes also include pedagogical training.

The teachers of practical education or practical training obtain a vocational and teaching qualification separately (the consecutive model).

In the case of the consecutive model of study, the content of the vocational (technical) education and training differs according to the level of education: at a tertiary level, the curriculum is under the responsibility of the higher education institutions or tertiary professional schools, but the study programmes have to be accredited by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (see Quality Assurance in Higher Education): at upper secondary level the schools (including the conservatoires) prepare school educational programmes on the basis of central framework educational programmes (see Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education).

The consecutive pedagogical training consists of pedagogy, psychology, teaching methodology, and usually the teaching practice. The teaching programme is accredited by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (in the case of the Bachelor's programme according to the Act on Higher Education (see First Cycle Programmes)), in the case of the life-long learning programme at a higher education institution or in the case of the study of pedagogy at an in-service training institution according to the Act on Education Staff (see Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education). Higher education institutions have the possibility to carry out the life-long learning programme even without the accreditation, however, they usually do not do so.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on in-service training of education staff

Higher Education Act

Framework educational programmes for vocational upper secondary education



Transmission of qualification levels

  • Only the pre-primary teachers who obtain their professional qualification through other than Master‘s programme focused on special pedagogy for teachers can teach at higher levels of education.
  • Teachers trained specifically for pre-primary education can teach at the first stage of a basic school only if they extend their qualification by a life-long learning programme provided by a higher education institution which is aimed at pedagogy for primary education teachers.
  • Teachers in preparatory classes of basic schools can have the pre-primary or primary teacher qualification.
  • Graduates of the programmes for primary teachers can teach at pre-primary level if they extend their qualification by a life-long learning programme at higher education institution, focused on pre-primary teacher training.
  • In order to be able to teach at the lower secondary level, teachers for the first stage of the basic school have to extend their qualification, either by the study in a Bachelor's programme, or by a life-long learning programme provided by a higher education institution which is aimed at teaching of general subjects at the second stage of basic school or, since 2012, also by a shorter supplementary study for the broadening of their professional qualification. The study does not qualify to teach in upper secondary schools.
  • Teachers for the lower secondary level who obtained their qualification in a teacher training programme for lower secondary level education (or for lower and upper secondary level of education) have to extend their qualification in order to teach at the primary level in a relevant life-long learning programme at the higher education institution (see above) or, since 2012, in a shorter supplementary programme for the broadening of their professional qualification.
  • For education at the primary level, teachers trained for general subjects specifically at upper secondary educational level have to fulfil broadening study in the life-long learning programme carried out by a higher education institution which is focused on primary teacher training (a shorter supplementary programme is not sufficient).
  • Finally, those with a qualification for the lower secondary level of education must also extend their qualification by a study in a Bachelor's programme or in a life-long learning programme if they wish to teach at an upper secondary school or, since 2012, by a shorter supplementary study for the broadening of their professional qualification.
  • Teachers with a qualification for the general subjects at upper secondary level can teach at lower secondary level without any other qualification requirements.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on in-service training of education staff



Teachers in classes or schools for children, pupils or students with special educational needs

The content and scope of the curriculum of special needs training for teachers in classes/schools for children, pupils or students with special educational needs (with disabilities) varies according to the type of a higher education institution and the type of study. Compulsorily or optionally, it includes basic courses in patho-psychology, paediatrics, psychiatry, neurology, and in individual fields of special needs pedagogy (etopaedia, logopaedia, surdopaedia, tyflopaedia, psychopaedia, and somatopaedia). Students can sometimes opt for a narrower area of specialisation. The curriculum generally also includes practical training in special classrooms/schools or at special needs facilities, and/or clinical training. The study of special needs pedagogy for the 1st stage of basic schools also includes vocational basics and the teaching methodology for educational areas of the 1st stage. The study of special needs pedagogy for the 2nd stage presupposes the concurrent study of one of the general subjects.

Teachers working with children, pupils or students who have impaired hearing disability have to demonstrate knowledge of sign language.



Teacher Educators

Teachers of primary, lower secondary and upper secondary level (základní školy and střední školy) and also pre-primary teachers (mateřské školy) are prepared at higher education institutions (vysoké školy). Requirements for academic staff who teach future teachers define the universities themselves, it is usually Master's, Doctoral, or another academic degree. According to the law, teachers at universities do not need to undergo professional training in teaching. Teachers who provide training in teaching may be as specialists in various educational or psychological fields, or experts on a particular subject specializing in didactics.

Teacher educators of future pre-primary teachers at upper secondary schools and tertiary professional schools must have a qualification prescribed generally for teachers of upper secondary (see the section on Secondary education – general subjects in part Institutions, Level and Models of Training) and do not need any other qualification or training. Teachers of professional trainings may be as graduates of Master's degree programmes in the field of education, special education needs, psychology, etc., at upper secondary schools. Faculties of education provide study programmes oriented on the teaching of pedagogical and psychological subjects at upper secondary schools. Admission requirements, curriculum and assessment is the responsibility of universities (for more information see the chapter Tertiary Education).

For teachers who train future teachers of artistic vocational subjects at conservatoires, it is sufficient to be qualified for teaching at conservatoires. They may not have a specific qualification for teaching future teachers.

If in the case of the consecutive model the initial education is carried out in Bachelor's study programmes, the information mentioned in the first paragraph applies to teachers. Similar conditions apply to lifelong learning programmes at universities. For teachers working in institutions for the continuing professional development of teachers the requirements are listed in the section Initial education for teachers and trainers working in adult education and training.

Teachers introducing new teachers into practice, if appointed by the school head, may not have any special qualification (a basic qualification is sufficient).


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Higher Education Act



Qualifications, Evaluation and Certificates

Professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups

Accredited qualifying programme for hospital assistants (sanitář) is completed after the final examination, leavers gain diploma. Nannies for children under school age (chůvy pro děti do zahájení povinné školní docházky) obtain a professional qualification certificate after passing an examination organised by a so-called authorised person. Details on the procedure and content of the examination are specified in the National Qualifications Framework. Applicants after successfully completing an examination obtain a diploma. For more information see National Qualification Framework. The following links are relevant to professionals working at setting for children under 3 years of age and in child groups who are prepared for the professions at upper secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and higher education.


Education staff at schools

The evaluation of future teachers and their certification depends on their level of education. They do not differ from the evaluation and certificates of those studying a different field of study.

For the methods of evaluation at individual types of schools, see the following: for the upper secondary school and the conservatoire, (see Assessment in Upper Secondary Education and Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)); for the tertiary professional school, (see Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure); and for the higher education institution, (see First Cycle Programmes, Second Cycle Programmes, Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes).

For completion of the study programmes and certificates at these schools, see the following: for the basic school, (see Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education); for the upper secondary school and the conservatoire, see Assessment in Upper Secondary Education and Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education); for the tertiary professional school, see Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure); and for the higher education institution, see First Cycle Programmes, Second Cycle Programmes, Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes).

In the future, teachers are required to have a Bachelor's degree, they take the state final examination at the end of a three-year Bachelor's programme, which also usually includes the defence of a final thesis. The subject matter is optional and is set by individual faculties. The successful graduates obtain a Bachelor's degree (Bc.). In a Master's study programme, students take the state final examination, which always includes the defence of a thesis. Other parts of the examination are determined by the individual faculties. Successful graduates obtain a Master's degree (Mgr.), or in some fields other titles (e.g. engineer "inženýr" – for more info see Second Cycle Programmes). The state examination takes place in front of the board; the course of the exam and announcement of the result is public. Only professors, associate professors and professionals approved by the science board are entitled to examine during the state examination. The Ministry of Education can appoint other members of the examining board.

In the case of the consecutive pedagogical training, the certification differs according to the type of training:

  • a Bachelor's degree course at a higher education institution leads to a final state examination (including defence of a thesis); after passing the examination, graduates obtain a Bachelor's degree;
  • a life-long learning study programme at a higher education institution is completed through the final examination and defence of a final thesis: successful participants receive a certificate confirming the completion of the relevant course;
  • by studying pedagogy at an institution for in-service training of education staff; successful participants receive a certificate on the basis of a final examination and defence of a final thesis.

The terms of conditions concerning the recognition of qualifications awarded by teachers do not differ in different regions.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on In-service Training of Education Staff

Higher Education Act



Alternative Training Pathways

Details on alternative training pathways of professionals working in settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups see in the section on the models of training.

A part of the consecutive and concurrent models there exist several other ways for attainment (recognition) of teaching qualification:

  • enlarging the teaching qualification to educate at other kind or stage of school within in-service training of teachers (for survey see the section on Transmission of qualification levels; information on in-service training see the section on Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education)
  • completing a particular examination of the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška; ISCED 354) – valid only for pre-primary teachers, but only if he/she has attained secondary education with a school-leaving examination in a field training to prepare educational childcare professionals (vychovatelé). For detailed information on the various tests, see the section on Verification and Recognition of Further Education
  • on the bases of some exemptions – see introduction to the section on Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education
  • under certain conditions, a teacher can be exempted from having the obligatory qualification; these are mentioned in the section on Entry to the Profession


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on In-service Training of Education Staff