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Czech-Republic:Historical Development

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

The existence of the Czech State dates back to the early Middle Ages. The Czech lands became a kingdom in the 13th century and its significance reached a peak in the 14th century under the rule of Charles IV, the Czech king and Roman emperor. He established a university in the capital, Prague, in 1348 which was the first institution of higher education north of the Alps. After 1620 the Czech lands became part of the Austrian and, after 1867, the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

After its demise in 1918, Czechoslovakia was established uniting the Czech territory and that part of Hungary inhabited by Slovaks and Ruthenians whose language was similar. In the 20s and 30s Czechoslovakia belonged to the ten most developed countries in the world with its efficient industry and high standards of education. After Hitler's occupation of the country in 1938, Czechoslovakia was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak state. It was restored after the war ended in 1945, but its easternmost part, Trans Carpathian Ukraine, was annexed by the Soviet Union.

The events leading to World War II and the war itself strengthened the leftist orientation of a significant part of the population. The nationalisation of mines, key industries, banks and insurance companies in October 1945 accounted for more than 60% of the economy. The Communist party won the 1946 parliamentary elections in Bohemia, giving rise to a government crisis in 1948 when they seized power. This resulted in a change of regime and brought the country under Soviet influence. The entire economy was nationalised and, to a great extent, run to meet the needs of the Soviet bloc. The state administration became entirely centralised and de facto subject to the Communist party. Marxism-Leninism became the only official ideology penetrating all levels of education, as well as other areas of life and society. The liberalisation of the regime in the late 1960s was short lived and was followed by 20 years of relative – though distorted – economic prosperity accompanied by an ideological miasma.

The end of 1989 saw the fall of the regime. Free parliamentary elections in June 1990 confirmed the course of democratic development. The unitary state was federalised and changed its name to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. Rapid and radical transition from a centrally administered economy to a market economy was less acceptable for Slovakia. This process was accompanied by the crystallisation of political entities in both countries; in Slovakia often marked by efforts to achieve national independence. After the 1992 election in which parties with incompatible policies won in the two parts of the federation, the split of the Czechoslovak state and the emergence of two independent states – the Czech Republic and Slovakia – was inevitable (taking place on 1 January 1993). The Constitution of the Czech Republic was passed on 16 December 1992.

Mapa cr obr.jpg

Viktor, 8 years

The State administration was relatively highly centralised. The central administration was in certain cases delegated to 78 district authorities. The basic territorial self-government units were and are municipalities, which have assumed some transferred administrative competences. In 1997 the process of decentralisation started. In December 1997, 14 higher territorial self-government units – regions – were established with effect from 1 January 2000. Regions undertook their responsibilities on the day of the elections to the regional councils, which took place progressively from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003. The activities of district authorities were terminated by 31 December 2002 and their administrative responsibilities were transferred to regions or municipalities.

At the beginning (after 1993) the political orientation of the country was right wing with the right wing Civic Democratic Party (ODS) leading the country. After the elections in 1998 the Czech Social Democratic Party gained a lead and formed the government after the elections in 2002. In the period 2006–2013 centre-right governments were in power in the Czech Republic. The coalition government of Civic Democratic Party, Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party and Green Party was in power to March 2009, when a vote of no-confidence was given to the government by Parliament. A caretaker government subsequently established in June was in charge until the next election in May 2010. After these elections, the coalition of Civic Democratic Party and two new parties – TOP 09 and Public Affairs (Věci veřejné) (later replaced by the political party LIDEM) was constituted. In June 2013 the Prime Minister resigned; in July a new caretaker government was established. In October early elections to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic took place and in the beginning of 2014 a new coalition government was appointed – see the section on Political and Economic Situation.

Political development is marked by efforts to achieve both formal and actual integration of the country into European structures. In 1993 the Czech Republic became a member of UNESCO, a member of the Council of Europe, and it gained membership of the OECD in 1995. In 1998 the Czech Parliament approved the Czech Republic's NATO membership. The Europe Agreement came into force on 1 February 1995, establishing an association between the Czech Republic and the European Community and in January the Czech Republic applied for membership. In March 1998 membership negotiations started and they were completed at the Copenhagen summit in 2002. The Accession Treaty was signed on 6 April 2003 and ratified by referendum in June 2003 (this was the first referendum in the history of the Czech Republic). The Czech Republic became a member of the European Union on 1 May 2004. In the first half of 2009 the Czech Republic held the presidency of the Council of the European Union.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Communication of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs establishing Decision No. 5/1998 of the EU Accession Council between the European Communities and their member states, on one side, and the Czech Republic, on the other side