Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

Overview of Early Childhood Education and Care

Institutional care for young children in the Czech Republic has a long tradition and is provided on a very broad basis for children older than 3 years of age although it is not compulsory. In terms of operating and staff costs, it is on a high level and its educational component has always been substantial. Nowadays the offer of care for children under age of 3 is relatively low and scarcely used.

Until 2013, children under the age of 3 were taken care of in traditional crèches (jesle) – special health facilities, generally established in big cities. The operation of crèches under the Act on Public Health Care was discontinued from the end of 2013, but the facilities usually continue to work in a different mode.

Since 2000, the regulated trade (profession) Daily care for children under 3 years of age has existed. It is primarily intended for private natural persons or legal entities; however, some public subjects have it registered as well. It enables care in the household of a child (possibly the care person) as well as care in a facility (setting for children under 3 years of age).

A new legal form of the services for young children has been set up from November 2014 – a child group (dětská skupina), intended for children from one year of age until the commencement of compulsory schooling. It provides a regular care for a child outside his or her home in a group of children not pre-primary education (unlike nursery schools). Child groups can be established by employers (private, public and state organisations) for their employees and by various non-profit entities (municipalities, regions, church organisations, benevolent corporations). The service can be provided against payment by parents or free of charge.

Pre-primary education (ISCED 020) is mainly carried out in nursery schools (mateřské školy) designated for children from 3 to 6 years of age. They may be attended by children over 6 years of age as well (with postponement of the compulsory school attendance) and exceptionally by children under 3 years of age. Education in the pre-primary year is provided free of charge (for one year), and children are eligible for it. However, in other years it is paid, but the amount of payment is adjusted by the decree of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (see the section on Fees within Public Education in the Chapter 3 on Funding in Education).

Under the Education Act, nursery schools fall into the category of schools under the purview of the Ministry of Education. They are mostly founded by a municipality or a group of municipalities. Private and denominational founders represent just a small percentage (6.7 % of institutions, 3.2 % of children in the school year of 2014/15). Nursery schools for children with disabilities which provide specially adjusted education programs are established by a regional authority or the Ministry of Education.

Preparatory classes (přípravné třídy) corresponding to the pre-primary level of education (ISCED 020) can be established in basic schools (základní školy, ISCED 1+2). They are dedicated to children in the year prior to compulsory schooling (mainly to children with postponement of compulsory school attendance) where there is a presumption that their inclusions into the preparatory class may balance out their development.

Services in facilities for children under 3 years of age and in a child group are described in the sections on programmes for children under 2-3 years, education in nursery school is included in the sections for children over 2-3 years. Details on education in a preparatory class are presented in the Chapter 12 on Educational Support and Guidance, section Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education.



General Objectives

The service of childcare in a child group is focused on assurance of needs of a child, on his or her education, development of his or her skills, cultural and hygienic habits.

Under the Education Act, pre-primary education in a nursery school (mateřská škola) supports the development of a pre-school child's personality, contributes to his or her healthy emotional, intellectual and physical development and to acquiring basic rules of behaviour, basic life values and to forming interpersonal relationships. It creates basic pre-requisites for continuing learning and helps to reduce inequalities in child's development before they enter compulsory schooling; it also provides special educational care to children with special educational needs. More detailed goals can be found in the basic educational document – the Framework Education Programme for Pre-primary Education which also applies to pupils with special educational needs. This document forms a basis on which school education programmes are developed.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Providing Care of Children in a Child Group

Education Act

Framework Education Programme for Pre-primary Education



Legislative Framework

Crèches (jesle) were governed by the Act on Public Health and by other regulations of the Ministry of Health until the year 2013. The operation of crèches was discontinued by the Act on Health Services at the end of 2013. If the crèches chose a different legal form they are governed by one of regulations mentioned below.

The regulated trade Daily care of children under 3 years of age is governed by the Trade Licensing Act that stipulates conditions for the trader's (or a responsible person in authority) and care person's qualification. If the trade is carried out in a facility, some demands of the Act on Public Health Protection and in particular the Regulation on hygienic requirements in premises aimed at education relate to it.

A separate Act on Child Group was approved, in force since 28 November 2014. It comprises requests for recording into the register of providers, conditions for service provision including the qualifications of employees, technical and hygienic needs. It stipulates charges, number of children, and compulsory documentation (inner rules, programme for education and care, register of children). A decree sets hygienic criteria for space where a group of 13 to 24 children is educated. A separate decree was issued for smaller groups of children.

The Education Act stipulates the goals and organisation of pre-primary education, defines nursery schools' (mateřské školy) position in the education system, and regulates their establishment and administrative matters. Details are regulated by the Decree on Pre-primary Education which lays down conditions regarding the operation and organisation of a nursery school, the maximum and minimum numbers of children in a classroom and provides for their safety. It determines the level of the tuition fee for pre-primary education. Nursery schools are governed by the decree on hygienic requirements for space for education. Further, the safety of children is subject of two documents: The Guidelines of the MEYS for Assuring Security and Health Protection of Children, Pupils and Students is binding only for schools established by the MEYS but other schools can use it as well; The Minimum Safety Standard is recommended to all schools.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Health Services

Act on Providing Care of Children in a Child Group

Decree on Pre-primary Education

Decree on Hygienic Requirements for Spaces and Operation of Child Group

Decree on Sanitary Standards in Institutions and Facilities for Education of Children and Youth

Education Act

Guidelines of the MEYS for Assuring Security and Health Protection of Children, Pupils and Students

Minimum Safety Standard

Trade Licensing Act