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Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

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Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

The conditions of service for professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age, teachers, other educational and non-education staff at schools and special purpose establishments are set out in the Labour Code and other generally binding national labour regulations.

The specification of service conditions at schools and school facilities (nursery school, basic school, upper secondary school, tertiary professional school – mateřská škola, základní škola, střední škola, vyšší odborná škola) is the responsibility of the school head. If there are trade unions at the workplace, the working conditions are the subject of negotiation. All these local specifications, however, must still respect the framework set by the generally binding legal regulations.

The new 2008 Labour Code brought the expansion of contractual freedom in the area of collective bargaining. Limits in the specification of working conditions in collective bargaining thus stem today primarily from economic rather than legal restrictions.

Schools and school facilities are legal entities and are responsible for labour relations, as they are the teachers' employers. The school heads in public schools decide on labour law issues relating to their employees.


Specific legislative framework – professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups

The conditions of service of professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age are generally similar to that of other occupational categories under the Labour Code.


Specific legislative framework – education staff at schools

Teachers and academic staff's conditions of service are generally similar to that of other occupational categories under the Labour Code. The basic pay regulations for public service employees are included. The details of the pay scale system and other pay terms in the case of public schools teachers are set by the Government Regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration.

The Labour Code also includes the general regulations of pay valid also for the remuneration of teachers of private and denominational schools. The lowest levels of guaranteed wage and the minimum wage are set by Government Regulation.

The definition of education staff and their list are included in the Act on Education Staff. In terms of the working conditions, there is an especially important part of the definition which states that the educational staff are always the employees of a legal entity which performs the activities of a school and school facility (i.e. a school), and that education staff perform activities which are carried out in education according to the Education Act (direct pedagogical activities). The same act specifies the requirements for the performance of all categories of education staff (i.e. not only teachers) and includes specifications for professional qualifications.

Another relevant legislative document is the Government Regulation defining the extent of direct teaching, educational, special educational needs or pedagogical-psychological activity.

The Work Rules for the staff of schools and school facilities established by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, region, municipality or voluntary union of municipalities sets out details on the duties of both employees and employers with respect to employment, work load, holidays and leave for self-study, and pedagogical supervision of pupils.

Teachers have the right to appeal to unions in questions of labour relations if these operate at the school. According to the Labour Code, the employer is obliged to consult on working conditions with the trade union. The employer is legally obliged in some cases to ask the trade unions for the approval of a decision which influences the working conditions of employees. In schools with no trade unions, the Labour Code imposes a commitment on employers to consult, in specified cases, working conditions with all staff.

If labour disputes arise between the employees and employers (and they do not concern the enforcement of the collective agreement), the first natural point of appeal is the school's responsible body. For upper secondary schools, this is usually the region (regional administration); for the nursery school and the basic school it is the municipality (municipal administration). At present, the process (as well as competence) to exercise a complaint with the founder is not legislatively treated. A further authority which is authorized to deal with labour disputes is the labour inspectorate (according to the law on the State Labour Inspection). The court represents the last instance and in most cases is the only body that can solve the dispute.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Act on Inspection of Work

Decree which settles work rules for the staff of schools and school facilities

Government regulation defining on work catalogue of employees in public service and administration

Government regulation on determination of direct educational, special needs, and educational and psychological activities of pedagogical staff

Government regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration

Government regulation on the minimum wage, on the minimum levels of guaranteed wage

Labour Code



Planning Policy

Education staff at schools

There is no planning policy relating to the supply and demand of teachers in the Czech Republic. Statistical indicators on numbers of pupils and teachers are monitored continuously at all educational levels.

The State and individual regions have tried to plan the development of the education system at a more general level by publishing The Long-Term Objective of Educational Development and Development of Education System (see Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level). The Ministry of Education and regions are required by law to issue these documents and keep them up-to-date. These long-term objectives are not concerned with planning the number of teachers or the number of pupils, but, in particular, they presuppose the development of individual educational fields depending on the national and regional demographic, economic, cultural, social, and historical conditions.

The current trend of the upper secondary schools (střední školy) merging due to the demographic decrease of older pupils' population is considered a part of the planning policy (for more details, see Organisation of Upper Secondary Education). On the contrary, in pre-primary education (still underestimated) an effort to increase the capacity of nursery schools (mateřské školy) is evident, see the section on Geographic Availability of pre-primary education. Lack of formal care for children aged 0–6 years should help solve the law on child groups, approved in May 2015 (see New Act on Providing Care of Children in a Child Group and Amendment to the Act on Child Group approved) which allows to employ professionals with different types of qualification as opposed to nursery schools (see the section on qualification requirements).


Legislation and bibliography:

Long-Term Objective of Educational Development and Development of Education System

Act on Child Group

Entry to the Profession

Professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups

The prerequisite for a worker to be accepted in a setting for children under 3 years of age is his/her qualification. See the relevant part in the section on Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

Individuals caring for children in a child group have to meet these requirements:

  • without criminal record (individuals are considered to be unblemished if they were not effectively sentenced for an intentional criminal act or for a criminal act committed with gross negligence during the child care or activities comparable with it, or for a criminal act its commitment can influence the capacity to care for a child);
  • qualification (see the relevant part in the section on Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education);
  • good state of health;
  • attainment of 18 years of age and full legal capacity.


Education staff at schools

Teachers are appointed through an open recruitment procedure. A contract of service is always concluded between a teacher and a school head with respect to the rules set by the Labour Code. The schools' responsible bodies (that is local and regional offices) cannot influence the recruitment of new teachers or the structure of education staff. The status of schools as legal entities is characterised by the complete autonomy of individual schools in the field of labour relations.

The prerequisites and requirements for the performance of functions by educational staff are specified in the Act on Education Staff. An educational worker can be a person who:

  • has full legal capacity
  • is qualified for direct educational activity he/she performs (for more information, see Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education)
  • has no criminal record (proved by submitting a document from the Criminal Register)
  • is in a good state of health (undergoes an entrance medical check-up)
  • proves knowledge of the Czech language (not required from persons who have completed training required to perform the work of teaching staff in the Czech language, or at least passed the school-leaving examination in the Czech language and from teachers of a foreign language or conversation or from teachers in schools with other than the Czech language of instruction)

If a teacher does not have an appropriate qualification, he/she can perform direct educational activity if:

  • he/she was 55 at least on the date of 1 January 2015 and if he/she provided the direct teaching at the particular type of school during 20 years (or he/she was 50 at least on the date 1 January 2005 and has at least 15 years of practice at the particular type of school). Nevertheless, the following fact should be emphasised: this exception does not represent a legal entitlement and the final decision is in all cases on the responsibility of the school head;
  • he/she was 55 at least on the date of 1 January 2015 and if he/she provided the direct teaching at the particular type of school during 20 years;
  • the school can ensure education for a necessary time and extent by education staff who do not meet the prerequisite of appropriate qualification; if it cannot provide these activities by a qualified worker; the school head is responsible for the professional and educational level of the instruction at the school.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff



Induction

The Labour Code requires employers to provide school leavers (up to 2 years after completing the school) with work experience and to ensure adequate practical experience to gain practical skills needed for the job. The employer is obliged to instruct or initiate the employee who moves to a new workplace or a new type of work due to the decision of the employer if this is necessary.

The duty of the employer to introduce the starting teachers into practice is not embedded in the legislation explicitly. There is not a system of introducing teachers at the central level. The actual ways of introducing starting teachers depends on the school head.

The school head can assign a so-called senior teacher to a new teacher who helps him/her at the beginning of the teaching practice (mentoring). He/she can entrust this task also to “subject committees” (a group of teachers who teach the same or related subject). Legal regulations do not specify any advantages for the senior teacher, so it is the school head's decision to grant the senior teacher additional remuneration in the form of a non-claimable component of the pay. New staff members do not have a reduced workload. A new entrant may obtain advice, information and informal feedback from the management, and take advantage of classroom observations etc.

The induction process is monitored through inspections of the Czech School Inspectorate. A systematic support to teachers with less than 3 years of practice is one of criteria for evaluation of conditions, course and results of education. According to the Annual report of the Czech School Inspectorate (2013/14) the mentoring is the most common form of support for newly qualified teachers. This applies to 83.5 % of schools, which employ teachers who have less than 3 years of practice.


Legislation and bibliography:

Labour Code

Annual Report of the Czech School Inspectorate for 2013/2014

Professional Status

Professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups

Employing professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age are governed by general labour legislation. Although they have the appropriate qualifications, they are not considered to be teachers, or health professionals, or social service professionals, as they do not provide either education or health care or social services. Specific regulations applicable for the previously mentioned jobs do not apply for these professions (with the exception of the requirements for qualification). Job classification, job title and job description are determined by the employer. They are employed in a labour-law relation.

If the founder of settings for children under the 3 years of age is a municipality, the professionals working in these institutions are employees of the public services. Their employer is either a municipality, or an individual legal entity. If they are enrolled in the health facilities the workers are health professionals who are subject to the general laws and health regulations. They are employed in a labour-law relation.

Professionals working in child groups can be employees of state, public of private organisations. They are employed in a normal labour-law relation. 


Legislation and bibliography:

Labour Code



Education staff at schools

The employment of education staff is regulated by the general labour legislation, primarily the Labour Code.

The education staff in schools run by municipalities, voluntary unions of municipalities, regions (public schools) or by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (state schools) are public service employees who are employed under an employment relationship, which has mainly taken the form of an employment contract, or it may take the form of an agreement on work performed outside of the employment contract. Their employment is subject to the Labour Code and Work Rules for employees of schools and school facilities.

Only the employees of the schools of Army, Police, Fire Service and Prison Service (state schools) can be civil servants; their status is subject to special legislation.

There is no ethics code for education staff.


Legislation and bibliography:

Labour Code



Types of contracts

The types of contracts available to teachers of schools and also to staff in settings for children under 3 years of age or in child groups (with exception of the appointment) are as follows:


A permanent contract

The current legislation favours permanent contracts of employment. An employer can terminate a permanent contract only for reasons stipulated by the law (see the section on Dismissal).


A fixed term contract

In certain cases an employee can be employed on a fixed term contract at most for three years. The labour relation concluded within a fixed term contract between the same entities may be repeated twice (the overall labour relation can last up to 9 years maximum: 3+3+3). In the case of educational staff, additional conditions have been applied since January 2016, when the amendment to the Act on educational staff came into force: The fixed term contract is concluded at least for 12 months, may be repeated twice, but the overall labour relation cannot exceed 3 years (for more see Fixed term employment contracts of teachers).

During the term of this fixed term contract, the teacher has the same rights as if on a permanent contract.


Appointment

This is a specific method of establishing an employment relationship. The Labour Code stipulates that this appointment is always valid for heads of public schools and the heads of organisation units of public schools. The head of the organisation units of public schools are appointed by the school heads. They may be dismissed for any reason and without giving a reason. Employment does not end by the removal from executive functions and the employer is obliged to offer this employee another job appropriate to his health condition and qualifications.


Agreement on work activity

This is a specific type of employment relationship, which is mainly used for so-called external employees, and in cases, it is necessary to substitute an absent employee. Since 2012, the agreement is stipulated either as a fixed-term or open-ended contract. Agreement must be concluded in writing. The teachers are not remunerated according to the pay scales, but according to the terms of their agreement. The use of these agreements is limited by law so that the scope of work carried out under these contracts must not exceed half the set of weekly working hours on average.


Agreement on job completion

This is a specific kind of fixed-term employment relationship which is also used for external employees and employees acting as substitutes. The agreement must be concluded in writing. The teachers are not remunerated according to the pay scales but they receive an agreed sum for the work completed. Use of these agreements is limited by law to a maximum of 300 hours a year for any job from 2012.


Part-time contracts

There is freedom of contractual content as to the number of working hours, and both contracting parties are unlimited by the law in part-time contracts. Only in the case of a pregnant woman and employees with dependent children under fifteen (or with other dependents of the second or higher level), is the employer bound to comply with the request of part-time work if there are no serious operational obstacles.


Legislation and bibliography:

Education Act

Labour Code

Replacement Measures

Education staff at schools

School heads are responsible for the recruitment of teachers. In the event of the teachers' absence (e.g. in case of short-term absence, teachers suffering from an ongoing illness, or a teacher on maternity leave), there are no special regulations for replacing them.

Thus the responsible representative can use various procedures:

  • a temporary change in the contract of another employee (only with the consent of the latter)
  • an increase in working duties of the existing staff (while complying with the rules specified in the legislation, particularly a range of weekly working hours and weekly direct teaching)
  • an increase in class sizes (but only up to the limit specified by the legal regulation – see the Organisation of Single Structure Education, Organisation of Upper Secondary Education)
  • supervision of pupils by another school employee of legal age
  • the recruitment of a fully and appropriately qualified substitute teacher

Redeployment is possible between educational levels (for example, from lower secondary level to primary) without the consent of the teacher when the work in the employment contract is generally agreed (e.g., teacher, teacher of a basic school), otherwise the consent of the teacher is necessary.

A school head may require a teacher to carry out direct educational activity up to four hours a week over and above his/her set workload and further hours by agreement. The direct educational activity during the substitution of an absent teacher is also understood as the direct educational activity over and above the set workload, and the teacher is entitled to receive an allowance at the rate of twice the average hourly income for each hour of direct educational activity over and above the required level.

The school head can assure the pupils' supervision by other school employees of legal age (not necessarily a teacher) as long as they have been fully instructed on the performance of supervision.

The employer can make a formal request to the Labour Offices if there is a vacancy at school.

In the case of teacher shortages; schools or appropriate authorities use a range of emergency measures. They can recruit a candidate:

  • who is fully qualified
  • who is not fully qualified; in such a case, the non-qualified teacher is, in accordance with the legislation, obliged to commence studies towards gaining the necessary qualifications within 10 years from the effective date of the Act on Education Staff, i.e. by 31 December 2014 at the latest, otherwise, it can be a reason for dismissal. Failure to comply with the statutory qualification is one of the reasons for the unilateral termination notice (see the section on Dismissal)

The cancellation of lessons is not common practice in the Czech Republic. If a teacher is absent, pupils can be sent home if the cancelled subject is the last lesson of the day (in the case of older pupils), otherwise supervision is provided for the pupils (i.e. substitution of an absent teacher, or lessons in other classes).


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Act on Employment

Education Act

Labour Code



Support Measures

Education staff at schools

Support for new fully qualified teachers – see the section on Induction.

Teachers do not get any special help in cases of personal problems and conflicts which they may be confronted with. Theoretically, they can use the pedagogical-psychological counselling centres (pedagogicko-psychologické poradny) but these are primarily focused on the problems of children and pupils (see Educational Support and Guidance).

Employers have to provide preventive health care (usually in the form of a contract with a company doctor) and provide entrance and regular medical check-ups.

In the case of teaching problems, teachers can ask an expert for advice from a specialised methodical team (metodický kabinet). These specialist groups are made up of experts in each teaching subject in the region. Since 1990, this form of teamwork has been voluntary and there is no legal regulation determining the existence and rules of the work, but it does have a long tradition.

In cases of especially serious teaching problems, it is possible to use the experts from the Czech school inspectorate, which is part of the state education system. The choice to use the support of the regional methodical expert is purely the teacher's decision. In the case of the school inspectorate, it is the school head or teacher who can initiate this help. The issues mentioned are not however regulated by any legal regulation. Consultations are free of charge for the teacher.

A teacher consults on the educational problems and special educational needs of pupils with a school adviser (výchovný poradce), who works at every school (for more information, see Educational Support and Guidance).

In a class with a pupil with special educational needs (whether or not he/she is integrated or in a class established for those pupils), the school head can create the position of a teacher's assistant (asistent pedagoga), for more information, see Educational Support and Guidance.

A teacher who acts as a class teacher, teachers carrying out certain specialised activities, and teachers or other staff in special classes or schools are entitled to allowances of varying amounts – see the section on Salaries.

If the school is allowed to exceed the permitted class size norms, the teacher has no legal claim to support or alleviation.

Teachers can work with heterogeneous groups of pupils; some of which have learning disorders, sensory or physical impairments or come from various ethnic groups. Possible support measures for educating heterogeneous groups are available for those who are being educated as well as for the educators (see Educational Support and Guidance). Teachers in mainstream classes with integrated pupils with special educational needs are not legally entitled to a higher pay, although a school head may offer e.g. an increased personal allowance (see the section on Salaries).


Legislation and bibliography:

Decree on education of children, pupils and students with special educational needs

Decree on providing guidance in schools and school guidance facilities

Government regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration



Salaries

The conditions of remuneration in public and state schools as well as at public settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups have been included in the new Labour Code and in a relevant Government Regulation for all employees in the public services and administration (except for regular soldiers and members of security corps). Salaries are disbursed monthly and the pay system comprises 12 monthly payments. The salary structure is described in more detail in the following two sections.

For remuneration in the public and business sectors, which have not concluded a collective agreement, a concept of guaranteed wage exists; it means that the employer cannot set a lower wage (salary) to employees than is the official lowest level of guaranteed wage. It is announced by the Government and divided into eight groups according to their complexity, responsibility and difficulty of the work. In public schools pay scales set by the Government currently exceed the lowest guaranteed wage: this provision is therefore fundamental especially for private schools (and private childcare centres for children under the age of three).

Non-teaching professionals of schools and school facilities – see the section on Other Education Staff and Staff Working in Schools.


Legislation and bibliography:

Government regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration

Government regulation on the minimum wage, on the minimum levels of guaranteed wage

Labour Code



Pay scale system

Education staff at schools

For the education staff, a particular pay scale system is set. The members of the education staff are paid according to the scale system with regard to the work they perform, that is according to the work categorisation.

The tariff system for education staff has 11 categories (4–14) and 7 pay grades within each category.

In placing a teacher on the relevant level of the pay category, the employer takes into account the most demanding work the teacher is required to do within the provisions of their contract of service and the relevant qualification requirements. Teachers are generally placed in the range between the 8th and 13th categories. Education staff are placed to the 13th pay category only on exceptional circumstances (predominantly school advisers (výchovný poradce) with the relevant qualification and school heads). In the 14th category, only persons who work on conceptions of national and international educational programmes can be included.   

Classification of education staff in the pay category on the basis of Work Catalogue and the Guideline of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and annual tariff salaries (according to the tariff valid from 1 September 2016):

position
category
minimum annual tariff salary
maximum annual tariff salary

pre-primary teacher at the nursery school (mateřská škola),

teacher responsible for leisure activities (pedagog volného času)

8th–10th

CZK 207 120 (EUR 7 665)

CZK 306 720 (EUR 11 352)

teacher at the basic school (základní škola), 1st and 2nd stage,

teachers of general and vocational subjects at the upper secondary school (střední škola), conservatoires (konzervatoř) or tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola),

teachers at the basic art schools (základní umělecká škola),

teacher in CPD programmes for education staff (pedagog v zařízení pro další vzdělávání pedagogických pracovníků),

SEN specialist (speciální pedagog), psychologist (psycholog)

11th–13th
CZK 265 680 (EUR 9 833)
CZK 382 920 (EUR 14 172)
teacher of practical education and practical training
9th–11th
CZK 258 840 (EUR 9 580)
CZK 320 880 (EUR 11 876)
teacher's assistant (asistent pedagoga)
4th–9th
CZK 128 400 (EUR 4 752)
CZK 298 920 (EUR 11 063)
educational childcare staff (vychovatel), according to the type of facility
8th–12th
 CZK 207 120 (EUR 7 665)
CZK 354 000 (EUR 13 101)

Note: EUR/CZK 27.02 - 8 February 2017 (European Central Bank)

The pay scales do not allow pay advancement by gaining further qualifications, with the exception of a school adviser and educational management staff. To perform these roles, it is required by law to have completed the prescribed in-service training. After its completion, the school head may delegate activities to the teacher which place the teacher into a higher pay category (at the basic school, the upper secondary school and the tertiary professional school, from the 12th to the 13th pay category). Some other additional responsibilities and management of the teachers are paid by the system of allowances – see Additional pay components.

Within the pay category, the teachers are placed in the pay grades according to the length of professional experience. What experience is credited and to what extent is up to the school head, within basic rules set by Government regulation. Fully credited is any work in the required area for which the same knowledge or similar knowledge is required; for teachers it usually means any teaching experience. Up to 2/3 of other working experience can be credited depending on its relevance for the given work. In the case of an extended break in service, this period is counted towards the pay advancement in only some cases and to differing extents (e.g. in the case of maternity or parental leave up to 6 years).

When teachers change an employer, they usually stay on the same pay grade they had reached in their previous employment. An exception to this is when the new employer acknowledges experience other than pedagogical practice (it is considered subjectively if this non-pedagogical practice can be applied to education in his/her school).


Legislation and bibliography:

Government regulation defining on work catalogue of employees in public service and administration

Government regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration

Guidelines of the MEYS for remuneration of the education staff

Labour Code

Additional pay components

Education staff at schools

Regulations relating to overtime pay and pay allowance for the performance of additional responsibilities are set centrally by law. Teachers have the right to overtime pay. The current pay system distinguishes between overtime work (work that is above the statutory weekly working hours, i.e. over 40 hours per week) and the direct teaching activities over the specified range.

Direct teaching above a specified range for teachers is a mode where weekly working time is unchanged (still 40 hours per week), but it is the decision of the school head to decide the ratio between the number of hours per week of direct teaching and the number of hours of related work. In public schools, the number of hours of direct teaching per week is set by law (Government Regulation) and every hour of direct teaching above this defined range is registered and separately remunerated. A teacher is entitled to receive an allowance of twice the average hourly earnings. The eligibility for overtime pay is reviewed monthly. For teachers working part-time, the following arrangement applies: only if the number of working hours reaches at least one hour over the legal working week, teachers are entitled to a pay allowance.

The law sets some additional responsibilities for which a teacher is granted an allowance and teachers have a right to this. The general level of these allowances is set by law, although there is a degree of discretion left for an employer in deciding on the actual level of these allowances for the performance of additional responsibilities.

Allowances are payable to the teachers for the performance of the following responsibilities:

  • leadership of other employees – this is set in a percentage of the highest pay grades in the given category: 5–50 % according to the level of leadership (for a school head it can be even more – see Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education)
  • class teachers (or heads of departments at a conservatoire or a basic art school or heads of study groups at a tertiary professional school) – CZK 400 to 1000 monthly (EUR 15 to 36; EUR/CZK 27.407 – 26 May 2015)
  • teachers whose direct educational activity involves the uninterrupted supervision of pupils who are exposed to a heightened risk of injury due to the use of machines, tools and apparatus during practical education or practical training – CZK 400 to 1 000 monthly (EUR 15 to 36)
  • teaching in classes with pupils from different years (see Organisation of Single Structure Education) or teaching special groups, classes and in schools for pupils with special educational needs (special educational needs teacher) – CZK 600 to 2 000 monthly (EUR 22 to 73)
  • performance of specialised activities – CZK 1 000 to 2 000 monthly (EUR 36 to 73). Legal regulations define the specialized activities as follows:
  1. coordination in the area of information and communication technologies
  2. elaboration and subsequent coordination of educational programmes for schools and educational programmes for tertiary professional school
  3. prevention of socially pathological phenomena
  4. specialised activities in the field of environmental education
  5. specialised activities of SEN specialist in school speech therapy
  6. specialised activities related to the spatial orientation of visually disabled children and pupils

For excellent or additional work a teacher can be granted an individual allowance or bonus, but this is purely up to the school head and there is no automatic right to it. In 2011, both these non-claimable components of pay – individual allowances and bonuses – amounted to, on average, approximately 10 % of a teacher's gross salary (without leading employees).

Individual allowances can be paid for the continuing excellent performance at work or for extra work, e.g. for regular activities such as administration of a school library, checking school materials, organising school competitions, mentoring and support for other teachers, more difficult work in classes integrating pupils with special needs, etc. This can amount to 50 % (in some cases up to 100 %) of the pay rate of the highest pay grade of the pay category. The level of and criteria for these pay components are not set by law and are fully within the discretion of the school head. The collective contract may specify closer criteria for allowances award by individual employers. If a school head decides to pay this allowance, it is paid monthly until the school head decides otherwise (it cannot be withdrawn, however, unless the facts leading to its awarding apply).

The school head can award a one-off bonus for the performance of an extra work task of high importance.

For working with pupils with special educational needs who are individually integrated to a mainstream school (including pupils who are applicants in proceeding for granting international protection in the territory of the Czech Republic) a teacher does not have a legal right to any special allowance compared to the teachers of special classes and schools, but the school head can grant an individual allowance to a teacher. This can also be done because, within the framework of the formula funding of schools from the State Budget, a school receives an allowance for each pupil with special educational needs. The amount of this allowance depends on the nature of a pupil's special educational need and on whether he/she is integrated. The amount is decided by the Regional Authority.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Government regulation defining on work catalogue of employees in public service and administration

Government regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration

Labour Code



Non-earnings-related incentives

Education staff at schools

Public and state schools are obliged to establish cultural and social needs funds for employees and their relatives, from which the employer contributes in the limits set by the decree e.g. to meals, recreation, social aid and loans, etc. A part of the contribution could go to additional retirement insurance or hazard life insurance or gifts for teachers' anniversaries.

Among other incentives for teachers, there is also included the possibility to grant employees a special pay (pay completely outside the pay system) to appraise their work by employers, e.g. at an anniversary. Employers can list such occasions and set the amount of payment granted in the internal rules or agree with the trade unions in collective agreement.

Teachers wishing to improve their knowledge of their own subject or of another subject in the curriculum can receive training related-benefits. They can have free time for self-study (see Working Time and Holidays). On agreement with the school head, costs connected with the in-service training can be paid by the school. In all these cases, it is the school head who decides.

Within their limits, the schools can offer teachers other benefits, e.g. some schools or municipalities provide teachers with housing. According to the decision of the school head and given rules, the teachers can also use the office equipment of a school (telephones, faxes, computers, photocopier, etc.).


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree of the Ministry of Finance on cultural and social needs fund

Labour Code



Working Time and Holidays

Working time

Professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups

The working time of professionals working at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups is 40 hours per week. The distribution of activities within the working time is set by the employer.


Education staff at schools

Teachers' working hours are set by the Labour Code at 40 hours per week, as for most of other employees. These include direct educational activity / direct teaching  set by the number of lessons per week and other activities associated with this obligation and resulting from the organisation of educational provision in schools. The responsibilities and the general workload of teachers are set by the Education Act, Act on Education Staff, in more detail by the Government Regulation on the extent of educational activity of education staff and the Work Rules for employees of schools and school facilities. This Government Regulation and Work Rules only apply to employees of schools and school facilities which come under the responsibility of municipalities, voluntary units of municipalities, regions, or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, neither to private and denominational schools, nor to schools governed by sectors other than the education sector.

Weekly teaching hours are equal for all teachers of the same category irrespective of the form or length of their contract. The law lists some exceptions when the teaching hours can be shorter. The direct educational activity of school heads and their deputies decreases according to the school size. The table below shows the individual categories of education staff. The extent of teaching activity of teachers who perform the function of a school adviser is reduced by 1-5 lessons a week, depending on the school size (for more information, see Educational Support and Guidance). In a similar way, the weekly direct teaching activity of a teacher who works as an ICT methodologist is reduced by 1 to 5 lessons.


Table of direct educational activity:

Categories of education staff
Number of hours of educational activity
Teacher
School head
pre-primary teacher at the nursery school (mateřská škola)
31
6-20, 5-16(16)
teacher at the basic school (základní škola)
22, 20-22(1)
8-12(2), 5-8(3), 4-12(4)
teachers at the upper secondary school (střední škola), conservatoire and tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola)
21(5), 21-25(6), 25-35(7), 21-33(8), 21-26(9)
2-6
teacher's assistant
20-40

teacher at the basic art school (základní umělecká škola)
23(10), 21(11)
3-9
educational childcare staff (vychovatel)
27-28(12), 28-30(13), 25-27(14), 30-32(15)

5-8(12,14), 15-20(13),9-10(15)

teacher responsible for leisure activities (pedagog volného času)
at least 6 times a week
at least 2 a week
teacher at a language school (jazyková škola) authorised to organise state language examinations
21
2-6
teacher in CPD programmes for educational staff (pedagog v zařízení pro další vzdělávání pedagogických pracovníků)
21
at least 3 a week
SEN specialist (speciální pedagog), psychologist (psycholog) / head of the school guidance and counselling facility
20-24
at least 3 a week

(1) 1st year of a basic school, first stage of a detached basic school designed for pupils with special educational needs, including the special basic school (základní škola speciální)
(2) a basic school with the first stage
(3) a basic school with the second stage, with the first and second stages
(4) a detached basic school designed for pupils with special educational needs
(5) teacher of general and vocational subjects
(6) teacher of practical education
(7) teacher of practical training
(8) teacher of practical training of detached schools designed for pupils with special educational needs
(9) coach (trenér)
(10) individual instruction
(11) group instruction
(12) boarding school (internát)
(13) an after-school club for primary level (školní družina) and a school club for secondary level (školní klub)
(14) school provision for institutional and protective education and preventive education care (středisko výchovné péče)
(15) youth home (domov mládeže)
(16) school head of the nursery school with boarding (continuous) operation or nursery school with boarding operations and with a special pedagogical centre

A school head may require a teacher to perform up to 4 lessons a week of direct educational activity over and above the required level, a teacher may agree on additional lessons. Education staff are entitled to receive an allowance for these additional lessons (see the section on Salaries). If a teacher's working hours have been extended, there is no need to modify either the employment contract or any other formal conditions of the employment relationship. Teachers cannot influence the number of appointed teaching hours.

The workload above the direct teaching activity – additional tasks connected with direct educational activity – is set by the school head. As an example, the Work Rules set the following list of activities:

  • preparing for direct teaching activity
  • preparing the teaching aids
  • correcting pupils' written, graphic and other work
  • supervision of children and minor pupils in a school (e.g. during breaks) and during activities organised by the school
  • co-operation with other education staff, the school adviser, the school prevention methodologist and the methodologist of information and communication technologies
  • co-operation with pupils' legal guardians
  • professional care of collections of teaching materials, libraries and other facilities serving education
  • additional work relating to the role of the class teacher and the school adviser
  • participation at meetings called by the head employee of the school or the school facility
  • study or participation in the in-service training

When they are not performing a direct educational activity or other activities during which they have to stay at school (pupils supervision, substitution for the colleague, participation in school councils etc.), education staff can work at an agreed place other than the school or school facility. During days when there are no lessons and teachers do not take leave of absence, they must perform work connected with teaching (unless they take study leave or compensatory leave).


Legislation and bibliography:

Decree which settles work rules for the staff of schools and school facilities

Government regulation on determination of direct educational, special needs, and educational and psychological activities of pedagogical staff

Labour Code

Holidays

Professionals at settings for children under 3 years of age and in child groups

Professionals working at public settings for children under 3 years of age have 5 weeks holiday; 4 weeks is the minimum in private facilities.


Education staff at schools

All education staff have 8 weeks holiday. Other forms of legal absence are included in the Labour Code. Generally, teachers take their vacations during school holidays. The timing of holidays for teachers at a nursery school is set with regard to the specific conditions in their school so that it can continue to operate without interruption.

Education staff are obliged to attend in-service training while they perform educational activities. They are entitled to 12 working days off per academic year for self-study and to full compensation for lost earnings. The school head allows education staff to take their days off at a time when no serious operational reasons prevent them from doing so, which is mostly on days when there are no lessons at a school, generally on days of shorter (other than summer) holidays or days when there are no lessons (no teaching).


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Labour Code



Promotion, Advancement

Education staff at schools

The Act on Education Staff introduced a set of rules and a career system that places education staff into career grades. This enables education staff of public schools and schools that come under the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports to advance in their profession in so-called career grades which are specified by professional qualifications, a description of the activities which they have to perform at a relevant level of education, or other prerequisites of qualifications, such as professional experience or certificates confirming the competence to perform given activities. If the employee performs an activity within a given career grade, it can in some cases mean promotion to a higher pay category or a claim to receive an allowance for specialised activities or for leadership responsibilities (see the section on Salaries). Conditions for placing an employee on a certain career grade are specified by the Ministry of Education in a Decree for the individual categories of education staff. The practical significance of the career system is disputable because the terms of remuneration (including promotion in pay scale) are made independently of this system by a generally binding legal regulation (Government Regulation), and quite independently of the status of teachers in the career system. The Ministry of Education is preparing a new career system base on a principle of linking the career system and remuneration with the continuing professional development, right and duty of the teacher to develop his/her professional competences and right to choice his/her career pathway – for details see the section on Introduction of career ladder (2015).

The assessment of teachers by a school head is reflected only in non-claimable components of their pay (individual allowance, or bonus).

In some cases, the performance of additional activities (e.g., of the school adviser, or the deputy school head) is reflected in fewer direct teaching hours (see the section on Salaries).

To perform the function of a head of school or school facility, the school head must fulfil certain conditions – see Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education. The school head decides upon the appointment of the deputy school head.

One possible promotion in a teacher's career is the post of school inspector. However, school inspectors are not considered to be education staff, but employees of the state administration (for more information, see Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education).


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on Education Staff

Decree on in-service training of education staff

Government regulation on determination of direct educational, special needs, and educational and psychological activities of pedagogical staff

Government regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration



Mobility and Transfers

Education staff at schools

The transfer of educational staff to a different workplace is dependent on the general terms set down in the Labour Code.

It is not possible to transfer a teacher to a different teaching post than that specified in their contract without the teacher's agreement. The law also requires the contract to specify the place of work. Some exceptions are possible when the employer places the employee in another position than is described in their contract for reasons laid out in law (such as serious health reasons). This replacement relates to a change of work in the same place of work. Schools are legal entities and a transfer to another school is not possible. An employee can only change the school by choice, and after fulfilling the conditions set by the new employer. When teachers move within the teaching profession, they do not have the right to retain their pay entitlements – the pay must only be in accordance with the valid pay scale. Merging of schools is a different situation when one school takes over activities of another school, including labour-law commitments. An employee is then an employee of a different entity – on condition that the workplace had been broadly specified in the contract (e.g. a town).

At present, an increasing number of young fully qualified teachers has been searching for jobs, which implies that the interest in the teaching profession is growing. An increase of starting salaries of fully qualified teachers from the 9th pay category with a minimum of CZK 20 000 monthly from January the 1st 2011 is without doubt one of the reasons for this fact.


Legislation and bibliography:

Labour Code



Dismissal

There is no legal regulation hindering education staff or professionals working at settings for children under 3 years of age from changing their career if they decide so.

The Labour Code allows education staff, like any other employees, to end their employment by giving 2 months notice. The employer and employee can agree on the termination of the employment contract at any date and the agreement is valid if both sides agree, and it is in writing.

An employee may be dismissed unilaterally by an employer under the terms set down in the individual provisions of the Labour Code (or by agreement with the employer at any time), which are legally binding.

Reasons for dismissal:

  • liquidation or transfer of an employer or redundancy of staff – the notice period is two months, and the employee is entitled to receive redundancy pay
  • non-fulfilment of preconditions or requirements for proper work performance – the period of notice is two months, and the employee is not entitled to receive any compensation
  • if the employee cannot perform his/her work for the reasons: accidents at work, occupational diseases or threats of occupational diseases – the notice period is two months, and the employee is entitled to severance pay (if he/she has not caused an injury)
  • if the employee has lost the ability to work (for health reasons) in the long-term – the notice period is two months, and the employee is not entitled to severance pay
  • failing to work properly, inability to follow instructions of superiors issued in accordance with the law and cooperate with other employees – the notice period is two months, and the employee is not entitled to severance pay
  • serious violation of duties deriving from the law applicable to the work performed by an employee; for less serious systematic violations of the obligations under the legislation relating to work performed – the period of notice is two months and the employee is not entitled to any compensation
  • gross violation of work duties deriving from the law applicable to the work performed by an employee or conviction for a deliberate crime for more than 1 year – the notice is immediate and there is no entitlement to compensation

In some cases, employees are protected from being given notice, e.g., when they are temporarily unfit to work or during pregnancy or maternity or parental leave.

These conditions are generally binding for all employees; there are no such provisions specifically for educational (or academic) staff.


Legislation and bibliography:

Labour Code



Retirement and Pensions

Retirement for the population in general is governed by the law on pension insurance (in force since January the 1st 1996).

The terms governing education and academic staff's entitlement as well as settings for children under 3 years of age professionals' and child group care staff's entitlement to a retirement pension are the same as for other employees. There are no special advantages for teachers. There are two conditions – to reach a minimum length of social insurance contributions and to have reached the retirement age.


Concerning the retirement age, until 1996 the age limit for the retirement was 60 for men who were born in 1935 or earlier and 53–57 for women who were born between 1938 and 1942 or earlier (depending on the number of their children). The retirement age is presently being increased by 2 months a year for men and at a different pace for women; to achieve this provision, those born in 1977 will reach the retirement age regardless of the gender and number of children at the age of 67 (in 2044). For younger persons, the retirement age will gradually increase. In 2015, the retirement age is 62+10 months for men and 58–62 years for women.

Until 2010, 25 years were the minimum length of social insurance contributions. As from 2010, however, this period has been extended by 1 year annually. It means that the people who are to reach the retirement age after 2018 will need the length of 35 years of social insurance contributions. For 2015, the minimum length is 31 years.

Retirement age (2015)
men
62 years + 10 months
women who are childless
62 years
women with 1 child
61 years
women with 2 children
60 years
women with 3 or 4 children
59 years
women with 5 and more children
58 years
Minimum length of social insurance contributions (2015)
31 years


The requirement for a minimum period of insurance reduces in the case of higher age than the retirement age. If people reached 65 years of age before 2010, the minimum period of insurance is 15 years. From 2010 the minimum period gradually increases. For those who reached the age of 5 years higher than the retirement age after 2013, the minimum period of insurance is 20 years. The maximum age for retirement is not given in the Czech Republic.

It is possible to take early retirement. In such case, the claimant must reach the minimum length of insurance related to his/her retirement age which is set in accordance with the date of birth, sex, and in the case of women, the number of children as well. Moreover, the time remaining to reach the retirement age must be at most 3 years. For those people with the defined retirement age of 63+ years the time remaining to reach the retirement age must be at most 5 years (they need to have reached the minimum age of 60 years). In case of early retirement, the pension is lower than the standard one.

From the 1st of January 2010, there is no labour-law limit for retirement, neither for teachers, nor for other professions.


Legislation and bibliography:

Act on pension insurance