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Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

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Overview Czech Republic

Contents

Czech-Republic:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Czech-Republic:Historical Development

Czech-Republic:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Czech-Republic:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Czech-Republic:Political and Economic Situation

Czech-Republic:Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Czech-Republic:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Czech-Republic:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Private Education

Czech-Republic:National Qualifications Framework

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Czech-Republic:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Czech-Republic:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Czech-Republic:Funding in Education

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Higher Education Funding

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training Funding

Czech-Republic:Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Czech-Republic:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Conservatoires (Arts Education)

Czech-Republic:Organisation of Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Teaching and Learning in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Assessment in Follow-up and Shortened Study

Czech-Republic:Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Czech-Republic:First Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Bachelor

Czech-Republic:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Second Cycle Programmes

Czech-Republic:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Czech-Republic:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Czech-Republic:Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Distribution of Responsibilities

Czech-Republic:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Czech-Republic:Main Providers

Czech-Republic:Main Types of Provision

Czech-Republic:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Czech-Republic:Teachers and Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Management and Other Education Staff

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Czech-Republic:Management Staff for Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Educational Support and Guidance

Czech-Republic:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Czech-Republic:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Czech-Republic:Mobility and Internationalisation

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Czech-Republic:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Czech-Republic:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in School Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Czech-Republic:National Reforms in Higher Education

Czech-Republic:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Czech-Republic:European Perspective

Czech-Republic:Legislation

Czech-Republic:Institutions

Czech-Republic:Bibliography

Czech-Republic:Glossary

For education governed by the Education Act (pre-primary to tertiary professional education), the local level is represented by the municipality. Some of the bigger municipalities have delegated powers to carry out state administration – the so called municipalities with extended powers. The institutional level is represented by schools and school facilities which are independent legal entities (except for some state schools). 

Higher education institutions are autonomous, independent legal entities (except for state schools). The role of municipalities is not defined. 

Administration and Governance at Local Level

The local level is represented by the municipality, which is the basic part of self-government in education. This area comprises education from the pre-primary to the tertiary professional level and the related school services. The municipalities with extended powers have delegated powers to carry out some state administration tasks (see the part on General Administration at Regional Level).

The municipalities can also ensure the functioning of services aimed at youngest children which are not within the direct responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (e.g. child groups – dětské skupiny). 

In the area of higher education, the role of municipalities is not specified. 


Pre-primary to Secondary Education

The municipality is obliged to create conditions for compulsory school attendance (see Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure). The municipality is also obliged to ensure the conditions for pre-primary education in the last pre-school year.

The municipality (or union of municipalities) runs:

  • nursery schools (mateřské školy)
  • basic schools (základní školy)
  • nursery and basic schools with teaching language of ethnic minority if a council for ethnic minorities is established in the municipality (see more in the section on Minorities in the chapter 12 Educational Support and Guidance)
  • their canteens

These different schools can be established as a single legal entity.

Apart from this, the municipality can establish:

  • basic art schools (základní umělecké školy)
  • school facilities for leisure time activities such as školní družiny (for pupils at ISCED 1 level) or školní kluby (for pupils at ISCED 2 level)
  • school facilities for a specific purpose such as swimming schools, school farms, centres of practical education (střediska praktického vyučování)
  • should there be a reason and resources, then the municipality can also establish schools which would otherwise be established by the region – upper secondary schhols (střední školy) and tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) – or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports


Basic Municipality's Competences and Obligations

  • It covers investment and non-investment expenditures of institutions witch it runs with the exception of direct educational non-investment costs (wage costs, teaching aids, textbook and other) that are covered by the state, although it can contribute to these costs.
  • It cares for a harmony between the development of education and school services and interests of citizens of the municipality, labour market needs, demographic development and development of its territory and for accessibility of education and school services according to local conditions.
  • It appoints and dismisses heads of schools that it establishes; it is done by the Municipality Council if the council is elected in the municipality, in other municipalities it is a mayor or local authority (for more see the section Requirements for Appointment  in the Chapter 11 Management and Other Education Staff.
  • It sets the catchment areas of basic schools established by the municipalities; it transfers the list of children living in the catchment area of the school who are obliged to start their compulsory school attendance to the catchment schools.
  • It establishes school council in the school run by it, and nominate one third of its members; thus it is involved in some decision-making processes in the school (see more in the section on Pre-primary and secondary education in Administration and Governance at Institutional level).
  • Based on results of inspection activities of the Czech School Inspectorate it decides measures in schools and school facilities run by it.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Tertiary Education

Tertiary Professional Education

The role of municipalities towards the tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is stipulated by the Education Act. The municipality (or union of municipalities) may establish or close down tertiary professional schools and school facilities. School can be established just in case the municipality provides proof of sufficient financial, material and human resources for operation of institution. The proof is provided to the body which administers the Register of School and School Facilities, in this case the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. The role of the municipality in assuring their activity is similar to the responsibilities of municipalities towards upper secondary schools (střední školy). See Pre-primary to Secondary Education.


Higher Education

The Higher Education Act does not specify the role of municipalities but representatives of the regional self-governing authorities (of the municipality as well) are also members of the public higher education institutions (vysoké školy) board of trustees.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Higher Education Act



Administration and Governance at Institutional Level

The status of institutions from the nursery schools (mateřské školy) up to the tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) established by the self-governing territorial units and set up by Education Act differs substantially from the status of institution in tertiary education under the Higher Education Act.


Pre-primary to Secondary Education

The regulation mentioned here also refers to the tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy), which provide education at ISCED level 655, but are governed by the Education Act.


According to the law, all schools (except for some state schools) have the status of independent legal entities and thus have a higher degree of autonomy. The legal entity enters legal relations under its own name and bears the responsibility for them.

The status of schools as legal entities enables:

  • greater autonomy of the school head in decision-making regarding financial matters;
  • responsible management of the school property to the extent determined by the founder in the deed of establishment;
  • independent decision-making of the school head in labour affairs;
  • possible development of additional school activity and handling their own profit or loss;
  • the keeping of their own accounting.

The school head is responsible for the management of a school (or a school facility). The parents, pupils of age, educational staff and the organising body (in case of public schools, i.e. the municipality or the region) can take part in the management of school via the School Council (školská rada). For more, see the part School bodies


Schools founded by ministries or territorial self-government bodies (public and state schools) have the legal form of:

  • subsidised organisations (příspěvková organizace) if they are established by the region, municipality or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports
  • school legal entities (školská právnická osoba) if they are established by the region, municipality or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports
  • organisational units of the state (organizační složka státu) if they are run by the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Interior or Ministry of Justice

The most frequent form of public school is that of a subsidised organisation. Schools established in this legal form administer property transferred to them by the organising body (state, region or municipality), receive resources from it for their activity, and are usually non-profit-making.

Since 2014, the school legal entity is a legal form of a non-profit organisation whose activity is limited to the educational sphere.


Schools run by church or religious associations (denominational schools) use the legal form school legal entities (školská právnická osoba).


Private schools are schools established by legal entities other than those mentioned above or by physical persons. Legal forms are generally covered by the Act on Commercial Corporations, e.g. Limited Liability Company (společnost s ručením omezeným), joint-stock company (akciová společnost), etc. They can also take the form of a school legal entity (školská právnická osoba) as defined by the Education Act or possibly the form of a public benefit corporation (obecně prospěšná společnost) (corporations established till 2014).


The necessary condition for activities of public, denominational and private schools is to be recorded in the Register of Schools and Schools Facilities (in case the schools take the legal form of a school legal entity also in the Register of School Legal Entities). See the section on the School Register Administration.

Schools and school facilities are obliged to administer documentation dealing with records on children/pupils/students, so called Register of Pupils (školní matrika) and submit the data to the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. See more in the section on Register of Pupils.

The funding of denominational and private schools differs from public and state schools (see the section on Private Education in the Chapter 3 on Funding in Education).

The Education Act enables various schools and school facilities of one organising body to function under one directorate e.g. joint directorate of nursery school (mateřská škola) and basic school (základní škola) or upper secondary school (střední odborná škola) and tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola). During 2003 many schools were merged to reduce their size and make them more effective and economical. Current demographic development is leading towards more merges even today.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Act on Commercial Corporations

Civil Code 

Education Act


School Bodies

School Head

The school head is responsible for the management of a school. In the area of state administration, the school head can make decision on the rights and responsibilities of children, pupils, students and legal guardians. For detail information please see Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education in the Chapter 10 on Management and Other Education Staff.


School Council (školská rada)

The school council is established at basic, secondary and tertiary professional schools. The school council is a body allowing parents, students of full legal age, school employees, citizens and other persons to be involved in school administration. It is established by a school's organising body (basic school, upper secondary school, tertiary professional school), which at the same time specifies the number of its members and issues rules for their election. In private and denominational schools, the function of the organisation body is fulfilled by the school head. If a legal entity manages more than one such school, only one school council need be established.

One third of the members are appointed by the schools' organising body, one third is elected by teachers and one third is elected by the pupils or their parents. The function period is three years. The school head may not be a member but must take part in meetings if invited by its chairman and must provide any documents requested for discussion. The school head assures the proper course of elections. The school council meets at least twice a year.

The School Council:

  • approves the school's annual report on the activity of a school;
  • discusses the budget and proposes measures for improving money management;
  • gives its opinion on the proposed school educational programmes and their implementation;
  • approves rules for evaluating the results of the pupils' education at basic school and upper secondary school;
  • approves the School Code (školní řád)  scholarship rules (stipendijní řád) at upper secondary schools and tertiary professional schools, and proposes amendments to these;
  • participates in drawing up strategic objectives for school development;
  • discusses the inspection reports of the Czech School Inspectorate;
  • makes suggestions and delivers notifications to the head teacher, founder state bodies involved in the school system, and other state administrative bodies, including proposals of recalling a head teacher;
  • makes suggestions to advertise the competitive recruitment for the post of the school head.

Pedagogical Council

A Pedagogical Council (pedagogická rada) is established by a school head as his/her advisory body including all members of the teaching staff. The school head discusses with them all fundamental educational documents and measures concerning educational activities of the school. The council has no decision-making power, however its opinions are taken into account by the school head. The council has both regular meetings and ad hoc ones to deal with particular educational issues. Larger schools also have subject boards (předmětové komise).


Self-governing Bodies of Pupils and Students

Pupils and students are entitled to establish self-governing bodies. The bodies have no decision-making powers, however, the school head is obliged to deal with the opinions and comments of such self-governing bodies. For more, see section on Involvement of pupils and parents.


Parents' Associations

Pupils’ parents often establish independent parents’ associations. For more, see section on Involvement of pupils and parents.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Register of Pupils

Schools and school facilities are obliged to administer documentation dealing with records on children/pupils/students (hereafter pupils), so called Register of Pupils (školní matrika). These data are further administered by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, for the statistical purposes and for the purposes of observing other duties assigned to the Ministry of Education by the Education Act.

The Register of Pupils contains data on a pupil as follows:

a) name and surname, birth certificate number (the birth date if the pupil did not receive it), citizenship, birthplace and the place of permanent residence (the place of residence on the territory of the Czech Republic by the type of the stay of the foreigners or place of residence abroad if the pupil does not stay on the territory of the Czech Republic);
b) data on previous education incl. attained educational level;
c) field, form and duration of education, it secondary or tertiary professional schools are concerned;
d) date of beginning of education in the school;
e) data on process and results of education in the school, language of instruction;
f) data on disability of the pupil, data on supporting measures provided to the pupil by the school, and conclusions of examinations mentioned in recommendation of the school guidance facility;
g) data on health capacity for education and on health difficulties that could have an impact on the educational process; 
h) date of completion of education in the school; data on examination that completed the education in the secondary or tertiary professional school;
i) name and surname of the legal guardian, the place of permanent residence (domicile if he/she has not the permanent residence on the territory of the Czech Republic), an address for delivering documents, telephone contact. 

Data on a disability of a child (point f) are anonymous.

Schools and school facilities pass on the data of documentation and Register of Pupils to the Ministry of Education (or to the legal entity established by it). Schools and school facilities that are not established by the Ministry of Education pass on these data in a form of statistical information to the regional authority, in the case of the schools and school facilities established by municipalities also to the authority of the municipalities with extended competences.

The Ministry of Education stipulates the way of administration of the Register of Pupils and the form and terms for passing on the data in the decree on administration of documentation of schools.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Decree on Administration of Documentation of Schools


Involvement of Pupils and Parents

The involvement of pupils, students and parents in school management, their rights and responsibilities are stipulated by the Education Act and in more details in the School Code (školní řád) of individual schools. The conditions for the cooperation of schools with parents can be set by the framework education programmes and specified in detail in the school education programme. The communication with parents is also monitored by the Czech School Inspectorate which sets the evaluation criteria for this area. 


Pupils and students are entitled to:

  • education and school services according to the Education Act,
  • information on the course and results of their education; 
  • elect and be elected to the School Council (školská rada), if they are of legal age (for more information, see the section on School Bodies),
  • establish, within the school, self-governing bodies of pupils and students, to elect and be elected to such bodies, to work for them and through them contact the school head, whereas the school head is obliged to deal with the opinions and comments of such self-governing bodies (the establishment of the “pupils’ parliaments” is being verified within the pilot project – see the section Promoting Civic Education in Schools – Pupils’ Parliaments in the chapter 14 on Reforms), 
  • express their opinions on all decisions concerning substantial matters of their education, whilst their opinions must be  considered taking into account their age and the level of their development,
  • information and guidance of the school (or school facility) in the matters of education based on the Education Act. 

Pupils and students are obliged to:

  • duly attend the school or school facility and properly educate themselves;
  • follow the School Code (školní řád) or internal Rules of Order (vnitřní řád), regulations and instructions of the school or school facility concerning health protection and safety,
  • respect instructions given by the educational staff of schools or school facilities.

Pupils and students of legal age are further obliged to:

  • inform the school and school facility on any change in their health condition, health problems or other serious facts which could affect the course of their education,
  • justify their absence from school lessons in compliance with conditions set out in the School Code,
  • report to the school and school facility the data for the Register of Pupils (under Section 28, paragraph 2 and 3 of the Education Act, see section Register of Pupils – školní matrika) and other data essential for the course of their education or safety and any changes in such data.

Parents

Under the Education Act, the statutory representatives of children and minor pupils are entitled to:

  • information on the course and results of education (this right is guaranteed also to the parents of pupils of age or to persons who have the maintenance obligations toward such pupils),
  • elect and be elected to the School Council (for more information see the section on School Bodies),
  • express their opinions on all decisions concerning essential matters of education, 
  • information and advisory assistance of the school or school facility in issues concerning the education.

Statutory representatives of children and minor pupils are obliged to

  • ensure that the child or pupil duly attends the school or the school facility (for more information, see the section Compulsory Education,) 
  • at the request of the school head or the head of the school facility to participate personally in discussing serious matters concerning the education of a child or a pupil, 
  • inform the school and the school facility on health changes and health problems of a child or a pupil or other serious facts that could affect the course of education
  • justify the absence of a child or a pupil from school lessons in compliance with conditions set out in the School Code, 
  • give to the school and school facility data for the Register of Pupils, (under Article 28, par. 2 and 3 of the Education Act, see the section Register of Pupils) and other data which are essential for the course of the education or the safety of a child or a pupil, including any changes in such data. 

The details on the execution of rights and duties are set by the school head in the School Code, approved by the School Council.

Parents often establish school parents’ associations. For more, see the section on the Involvement of pupils and parents. These are voluntary communities (former civic associations), which help to ensure and financially support various school events. These associations can also participate in passing information between school  management and  parents.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act

Civil Code 


Comunication with Society at Institutional Level

Within the education system it is expected that central bodies and various other organisations, including companies, will provide schools with assistance in education and training, in updating educational content and in ensuring personnel and material conditions for their activities.Some requirements for cooperation of a school with different players can be set in the framework education programmes, the conrete form is presented by the school in its school education programme.

The long-lasting absence of binding legislative framework has a permanent negative influence on the intensive and regular participation of social partners in initial education and the system of life-long learning. At present the participation of partners is voluntary and based on their own initiative; it is far from involving all schools in need, especially from technologically and economically less developed regions. This shortage is felt at most in the field of vocational education, which is the most demanding in the terms of equipment and finances.

Nevertheless, in agreement with their professional focus, the collaboration of upper secondary schools (střední školy) and tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy)  with the world of work is carried out via partnership agreements on ensuring pupils' work practice with the surrounding companies. This type of co-operation is less frequent for general upper secondary school (gymnázium), and more intensive in vocational education, where it is included in the framework educational programmes and specified in school educational programmes. The school educational programmes set the scope and time allocation of practical education and training which often corresponds to the requirements of “partner” companies taking also into account regional characteristics and specificity of the field of education.

Company employees may directly participate in education as the external teachers of especially the vocational subjects; in defining the specific requirements of the content of the curriculum, or in the evaluation of learning outcomes as the members of examining board of the final examination (závěrečná zkouška) – in this case obligatory – and the school-leaving examination (maturitní zkouška).

The professional excursions and short internships of teachers at the technologically advanced workplaces of companies become an important instrument for the improvement of the school professional quality. In return, schools may also provide or organise courses for thecompany's employees and they can also play an important role by participating in the National Qualification Framework (see the part National Qualifications Framework).


Legislation and Bibliography:

Civil Code

Education Act

Tertiary Education

Tertiary Professional Schools

The administration of tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is governed by the Education Actsimilarly to the schools providing lower level of education. The involvement of students and the communication with different players is also analogous to lower levels. See the section Pre-primary to Secondary Education.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Education Act


Higher Education Institutions

Higher education institutions (vysoké školy) enjoy a high degree of autonomy and this is reflected in their bodies as defined by the Higher Education Act.

The higher education institutions have guaranteed academic freedom and academic rights. These are as follows:

  • the freedom of scientific, research and artistic work, and freedom to publish their results;
  • freedom of instruction consisting primarily in the openness to different scientific ideas, scientific and research methods and artistic styles;
  • the right to study, which includes a free choice of the field of study within study programmes and the freedom to express individual opinions during instruction;
  • the right of the academic community's members to elect representative academic bodies;
  • the right to use academic insignia and to perform academic ceremonies.

All higher education institutions, not only public ones, are forbidden to set up or organise political parties and political movements.

The level of self-governance and how it relates to the state administration differ among public, private or state higher education institutions.


For public higher education institutions, self-government primarily includes:

  • decisions on internal organisation;
  • setting the number of students admitted, admission requirements, formulating and providing study programmes;
  • the organisation of study;
  • decisions concerning the rights and obligations of students;
  • the orientation and organisation of scientific and other creative activities;
  • labour relations and setting the number of academic and other staff;
  • authorization to perform habilitation qualification procedures for the appointment of the ‘docent‘ procedures for obtaining venium docendi and procedures for the appointment to professorship;
  • co-operation with other higher education institutions and international contacts;
  • the establishing of self-governing academic bodies;
  • management of assets;
  • setting the level of fees associated with studies.


Bodies of a Public Higher Education Institution

The self-governing bodies of a public higher education institution consist of:

  • an academic senate (akademický senát);
  • a rector (rektor);
  • a scientific (artistic, academic) council (vědecká rada / umělecká rada / akademická rada);
  • a disciplinary commission (disciplinární komise).


Other bodies include:

  • a board of trustees (správní rada);
  • a quaestor (kvestor).


Academic Senate

The academic senate of a public higher education institution is a self-governing academic body whose members are elected from among the members of the academic community (i.e., from students and academics) by a direct vote with a secret ballot. It has 11 members at least. Students may form between one third and one half of its members. The number of the senate members, the way they are elected, the bodies within the senate and their activities are determined by the internal regulations of each public higher education institution. The term of office for individual senate members is a maximum of three years and meetings of the senate are public. The academic senate passes resolutions through a secret vote on issues set in the Higher Education Act; in other cases, the method of voting is set out in the internal regulations.

The academic senate is involved:

  • in decisions on the establishing, organisation and abolishing of the higher education institution's constituent parts;
  • in approving internal regulations of the institution and its constituent parts;
  • in approving the budget and controlling the finances of the institution;
  • in approving annual reports on the activities and the management of the institution's resources;
  • in approving the evaluation of the institution's activities;
  • in approving proposals for appointing and dismissing members of the scientific council or a disciplinary commission;
  • in approving admission requirements to study programmes that are not organised in faculties;
  • in approving proposals for the appointment of a rector or recommending their dismissal;
  • in approving the long-term plan of educational and scientific, research, developmental and innovative, artistic and other creative activities and its annual up-dating;
  • on the rector's proposal, cancelling an internal regulation, decision or other act of a body, or suspending it is in contradiction with the special regulations or internal regulations of the public higher education institution;
  • in expressing opinions on the rector's intention to appoint or dismiss their deputy;
  • in expressing opinions on proposals for study programmes that are not organised in faculties;
  • in expressing opinions on legal procedures requiring the assent of the board of trustees;
  • in expressing opinions on suggestions and opinions of the board of trustees.


Rector

A public higher education institution is headed by a rector who decides and acts on the affairs of the institution. In cases when a special regulation presupposes the activity of a statutory body, it is under the rector's responsibility. The rector is appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic on the recommendation of the academic senate submitted through the Minister of Education. The same person may perform the office of a rector only for two consecutive four-year periods. The rector may appoint the vice-rector to act on their behalf in certain matters. Vice-rectors are nominated and dismissed by the rector.


Scientific Council

The scientific council of a public higher education institution (in the case of arts programmes, the artistic council and in the case of non-university higher education institution, the academic council) debates the long-term plans of the institution and approves study programmes which do not fall within the purview of the relevant faculty. Furthermore, it acts, as set down by the Higher Education Act, during the habilitation procedures for the appointment of the docent or for appointment to a professorship. The scientific council members are selected from the ranks of recognised representatives of the fields in which the institution carries out educational and scientific, research, developmental and innovative, artistic and other creative activities. At least one third of the scientific council members are external staff working outside the academic community of the relevant higher education institution. They are appointed and dismissed by the rector, who chairs the scientific council.


Disciplinary Commission

The disciplinary commission of a public higher education institution discusses disciplinary transgressions of students if they are not enrolled at any of its faculties (if they are enrolled at a faculty, their transgressions are subject to proceedings in the relevant faculty). Its chairperson and members from the ranks of the academic community are appointed by the rector (one half of the members are students). The term of office of the disciplinary commission members is a maximum of two years.


Board of Trustees

The public higher education institution's board of trustees ensures that the institution adheres to the aims for which it was founded and that the public interest is taken account of in its existing and future projects. Apart from this, the board of trustees gives written assent; to all legal procedures concerning the institution's management of fixed, and partially also movable assets; to legal procedures by which the institution aims to acquire a liability or a right of pre-emption; to legal procedures by which the institution aims to establish another legal entity; and on monetary and non-monetary investments in these or other legal entities. It expresses an opinion on the long-term plans of the institution, on its budget, on the evaluation of the institution and annual reports on its activities and management of resources. Its views are made public. The Minister of Education appoints members of the board for a six-year term of office. The Minister, together with the rector, ensures that the members are leading representatives of public life, local government and the state administration. Staff of a public higher education institution may not become members of their own institution's board of trustees. The meetings of the board are open to the public; they are convened and chaired by its chairperson. The standing orders for the board of trustees are set out in a statute approved by the Minister of Education.


Quaestor

The quaestor is in charge of the management of resources and internal administration of a public higher education institution. He/she is appointed and dismissed by the rector, who also determines when and to what extent the administrator may act on behalf of the institution.


Internal Regulations of the Public Higher Education Institution

Self-governing bodies of a public higher education institution are governed in their activities by general regulations, but they also have their own internal regulations. The regulations include a statute, standing orders and election procedures for the academic senate, internal wage regulations, standing orders for the scientific council, regulations concerning recruitment proceedings associated with the filling of academic posts, study and examination regulations, scholarship regulations, and disciplinary regulations for students or other regulations as required by the specific situation of each institution.


Statut

The most important of the internal regulations is the statute, which comprises:

  • the name, address and type of the higher education institution;
  • the legal predecessor;
  • admission requirements and application procedures;
  • admission requirements for foreign applicants;
  • a list of accredited study programmes organised at the institution and a list of study fields in which the institution is authorised to perform the habilitation procedures for appointment of the docent and for appointment to a professorship;
  • definition of the content, conditions and frequency of the evaluation of the institution's activities;
  • the organisational structure of the institution;
  • provisions concerning fees charged for studies;
  • rules for the use of academic insignia and for the performance of academic ceremonies;
  • rules for the management of resources.

Internal regulations of a public higher education institution are subject to registration, which is carried out by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports on the request of the rector. If any discrepancies or conflicts with legal provisions are discovered during this process, the Ministry calls on the relevant higher education institution to redress such inconsistencies within an appropriate time limit.


Structure of the Public Higher Education Institution

If a public higher education institution is divided into institutional parts, then there is a division of powers between the institution as a whole and these constituent parts. A public higher education institution is divided into:

  • faculties
  • higher education institutes
  • units where scientific and research, developmental and innovative, artistic, or other creative work is carried out
  • establishments serving various cultural and sporting purposes or providing accommodation and meals for the academic community or assuring operation of the institution
  • specialised units ensuring provision of some study programmes or some of the institution's operations etc.)


Faculty

The most common institutional part of a public higher education institution is a faculty. Its self-governing academic bodies are the faculty's academic senate, the Dean (who may be represented by his/her Deputy), a faculty scientific council and a faculty disciplinary commission. A second body is the secretariat. The tasks of these bodies are similar to those of the academic senate of the institution, the rector, the scientific council of the institution, the disciplinary commission of the institution and the quaestor. However, their responsibilities are limited to discussing and deciding upon faculty issues. Faculties do not appoint boards of trustees. The faculty issues which fall within the scope of its autonomy are governed by internal regulations, which include the faculty's statute, standing orders and election procedures for the academic senate and standing orders for the scientific council, disciplinary regulations for students and possibly other regulations necessary for the operation of the faculty.


Higher Education Institute

A higher education institute may be an institutional part of a public higher education institution, which deals with scientific, research, developmental, artistic and other creative activities. The academic senate of a public higher education institution decides upon its establishment. It is headed by a director – appointed by the rector – who may appoint the institute's scientific (artistic, academic) council.


Specialised Workplaces

The provision of some study programmes requires the setting up of specialised workplaces. These may include an agricultural or forestry farm or faculty hospitals. Such establishments are subject to further legal regulations in addition to those of the Higher Education Act.


The state higher education institutions, i.e. the University of Defence and the Police Academy, provide specialists in these two fields and comply with their requirements.


Legislation and Bibliography:

Higher Education Act



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