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Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

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Overview Bulgaria

Contents

Bulgaria:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Bulgaria:Historical Development

Bulgaria:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Bulgaria:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Bulgaria:Political and Economic Situation

Bulgaria:Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Bulgaria:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Bulgaria:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Bulgaria:Organisation of Private Education

Bulgaria:National Qualifications Framework

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Bulgaria:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Funding in Education

Bulgaria:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Bulgaria:Higher Education Funding

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training Funding

Bulgaria:Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Bulgaria:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Higher Education

Bulgaria:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Bulgaria:First Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Bachelor

Bulgaria:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Bulgaria:Second Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Bulgaria:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Institutions Providing Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Main Programmes and Provision in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Teachers and Education Staff

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Management and Other Education Staff

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Educational Support and Guidance

Bulgaria:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Bulgaria:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Bulgaria:Mobility and Internationalisation

Bulgaria:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Bulgaria:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:National Reforms in School Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Higher Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Bulgaria:European Perspective

Bulgaria:Legislation

Bulgaria:Institutions

Bulgaria:Bibliography

Bulgaria:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The curriculum contains:

  • the names of the compulsory, core curriculum optional and free elective subjects;
  • the distribution of subjects in the grades;
  • the yearly and weekly number of school hours in subjects;
  • a timetable of the school year; a description of the organization of instruction in the respective schools.

The subjects in the curriculum are integrated in the following education and cultural areas:

  • Bulgarian Language and Literature;
  • Foreign Languages;
  • Mathematics;
  • Informatics and Information Technology;
  • Social Sciences, Civil Education and Religion;
  • Natural Sciences and Ecology;
  • Home Economics and Technology;
  • Physical Education and Sports.

Section А of the curriculum specifies the number of compulsory school hours and subjects which guarantee the attainment of the general education minimum. The number of school hours for each subject is compulsory for all schools.

Section B of the curriculum specifies the total number of school hours in core curriculum optional subjects, which provide an opportunity for further building up on the general education minimum according to pupils’ interests and abilities. These hours are added up to the compulsory ones for any subject taught to students’ academic and social benefit bearing in mind students’ interests and choices, by the schools.

Section C of the curriculum offers additional hours, which provide education according to the pupils’ choice be it among the compulsory subjects or any other studies and activities.

Every school by decision of the pedagogical council decides on the school curriculum plan, specifying the core curriculum optional and free elective subjects and the distribution of school hours among these subjects for the whole educational stage. The school curriculum plan complies with pupils’ interests and the potential of the school.

Education, in terms of academic studies, is defined by:

  • syllabi per subject per grade specifying the objectives of each subject;
  • expected results on study content cores;
  • the study content by topics, concepts, context, activities and interdisciplinary links;
  • specific methods and forms of assessment of pupils’ achievements;
  • brief teaching methods guidelines in view of the specifics of the subject and the peculiarities of students’ age.

Apart form the specific skills formed in the various school subjects, they include key groups of skills, which are formed across subjects such as: linguistic literacy, basic mathematical knowledge, computer skills, communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving, learning-to-learn skills.

The guiding principles in defining the new study content are related to the need to decrease the volume of information and the academic style of presentation. to suit the content to the age of the pupils and their personal experience; making study materials more practical-oriented, etc. The new course books, developed in accordance with the State Educational Requirement for the study content and the syllabi and introduced together with the curriculum, provide wider opportunities to learn by thinking and experiencing, not by merely reproducing studied material.

Primary School Curriculum

Table view:

1-4 Grade BG.jpg


Lower Secondary School Curriculum

Table view:

5-8 Grade BG.jpg


Teaching Methods and Materials

In the primary stage of basic education (grades 1st to 4th) one teacher is responsible for one class, and teaches all the subject of the curriculum. In schools where there are more classes in the same grade and the school can afford it, foreign languages, art, music, physical education and sport are taught by qualified in these subjects teachers.

In the lower secondary stage of basic education (grades 5th to 8th) each subject is taught by a separate teacher, qualified to teach in the particular field. 

The modernization of the educational process aims at achieving the State Educational requirements through developing students’ competences and encouraging their analytical thinking, critical attitude, and creativity. The active role of students is of primary importance and there is provision for students’ free expression and development of reflecting behaviour.

There are no specific pedagogical approaches prescribed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. Teachers use mainly the approaches they have been taught during their university initial training as part of their education, which is a must for a teacher to be considered qualified. Basically various teaching methods, techniques and academic activities are employed at basic schools. In basic education teaching is done by combining traditional methods, such as: narration, explanation, demonstration, lectures, etc. with modern ones, such as: research, dialogue, presentations, reports, essays, enactments etc. Activities are organized and emphasis is laid on the independent creation of products according to the specific subject taught.

Textbooks are approved by the Minister of Education, Youth and Science after a fixed procedure as follows:

  • textbook procedure is announced;
  • all textbook publishers, who are interested in having their textbook(s) approved apply and submit copies of their textbooks;
  • all textbooks submitted are assessed and evaluated by experts in all subject-related spheres along fixed criteria;
  • all textbooks which meet the requirements stated in the corresponding SER and syllabus are sent out throughout the country to all teachers;
  • teachers rank all textbooks;
  • the first three are approved by the Minister of Education, Youth and Science. From there on every school or teacher is free to choose one of the three already approved textbooks. As to supplementary materials there is no restriction and teachers can use any as long as they find them suitable and useful for the students.

Aware of the importance of technologies in modern education, in 2005 MEYS developed National strategy for the implementation of ICT in Bulgarian schools. The National Program for school education and pre-school training and preparation (2006 -2015) put a further emphasis on broadening students’ access to technologies and the Internet. Since 2007 National education portal (www.start.e-edu.bg) has been in operation with free access for all. It supports school education in an up-to-date manner. The portal offers lots of opportunities to all pupils, teachers, principals, parents – with the option for 1,000,000 users to work simultaneously. It provides different electronic courses of study, tests, digital school documentation and a wide range of information. Users can communicate through various thematic forums; they have access to the web pages of all schools in the country as well as to the registers of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. It offers supplementary study and methodology books and materials for both students and teachers.

According to Pre-primary and Schools Education Act, promulgated, State Gazette No. 79/13.10.2015, Chapter VII effective 14.12.2015 and Regulation № 6/30.11.2015 for cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational supplements.

According to the Pre-primary and School Education Act is determinated The State Educational Standard, which contains:

  1. The requirements for the content, graphic design, polygraphic and electronic fulfilment of cognitive booklets, textbooks, educational sets and educational supplements;
  2. The conditions and procedures for evaluation and approval of the projects of cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational sets and changes into them, including the determination of the evaluators.

In pre-primary education are used cognitive booklets and educational supplements. In school education are used textbooks and educational sets.

According their function the textbooks are:

  1. By the subjects of general education;
  2. By the compulsory modules of the specialized training;
  3. By the mother tongue, religion and choreography subjects;
  4. By ubjects or modules of the general professional training;
  5. By special subjects for students with sensory disabilities.

The educational set includes a textbook and one or several educational supplements created by the authors and approved by the Minister of Education and Science in a united system. Each year the Minister of Education and Science approved a list of cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational sets that can be used in the system of pre-primary and school education.

Cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational supplements must meet the requirements related to:

  1. content;
  2. graphic design;
  3. polygraphic implementation;
  4. electronic implementation.

Cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational supplements must be conformed with the age characteristics of children and students, and to encourage self-reliance and thinking. Cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational supplements can not contain elements of commercial advertising, texts that discriminate based on gender, race, nationality, ethnicity, religion, disability, origin, convictions, social status and property, and any other grounds established by law or international treaty in which Bulgaria is a party.

Cognitive booklets must conform to state educational standards for pre-primary education.Textbooks must conform to the relevant curriculum of the relevant grade.

General requirements for cognitive booklets and textbooks:

  1. text and other components out of the texts;
  2. structuring;
  3. language;
  4. graphic design and illustration;
  5. paper and book cover;typography;
  6. formats;
  7. passport and bibliographic information;
  8. electronic  implementation.

The electronic edition should be created on the basis of known models of navigation and retrieval of information and to be easy to be used by children and students without need for further instructions. Electronic edition can contain audio files, videos, interactive animations, 3D visuals, illustrations and opportunities to increase focus on individual details, virtual simulations of processes, tests and others for the training purposes. The conditions and procedures for evaluation and approval of cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational sets.

Procedure for evaluation and approval of cognitive booklets is organised for one or more educational fields for a certain age group of pre-primary education.

Procedure for evaluation and approval of textbooks or educational sets is organised for a certain subject or module for one or more grades.

With projects of cognitive books, textbooks or a educational sets can participate in the evaluation procedure publishers and/or authors.

The procedure for evaluation and approval of projects of cognitive booklets, textbooks or educational sets includes:

  1. Admission to the evaluation;
  2. Evaluation;

Cognitive booklets are evaluated in one stage of evaluation – the conformation to the state educational standard for cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational supplements and to the requirements for content, graphic design, polygraphic and electronic  implementation.

Textbooks and educational sets are evaluated in two stages:

  • First stage - evaluation for compliance with the requirements of the state educational standard for cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational supplements and to the requirements for content, graphic design, polygraphic and electronic  implementation.;
  • Second stage – the evaluation of their suitability for use in school is done for projects that meet the requirements of state educational standard for cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational supplements, and is organised in each school for the teachers who teach the subject in the relevant stage of education.approval of the cognitive book, textbooks and educational sets.

     3. Procedure for evaluation and approval of projects of cognitive booklets, textbooks and educational sets is opened by the Minister of Education and Science usually after approval of new curricula - for school, and after the adoption or amendment of the state educational standards for pre-primary education - early childhood education.

The Minister of Education and Science by order appoints a commission in the Ministry of Education and Science which must organise all activities in the procedure for the evaluation and approval of cognitive booklets, textbooks or educational sets, including to check the regularity of the submitted documents.

The evaluators of the projects can be specialists in the scientific field, didactics or methodology of teaching the subject, on the subject, in the field of graphic design and in the polygraphy. For each procedure of evaluation and approval of the projects, the Minister of Education and Science after consultation with the Chairman of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) and members of the professional Unions approves list of evaluators which includes university professors, scientists from BAS, experts from the Ministry of Education and Science or from the regional governance of Education and teachers.