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Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

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Overview Bulgaria

Contents

Bulgaria:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Bulgaria:Historical Development

Bulgaria:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Bulgaria:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Bulgaria:Political and Economic Situation

Bulgaria:Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Bulgaria:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Bulgaria:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Bulgaria:Organisation of Private Education

Bulgaria:National Qualifications Framework

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Bulgaria:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Funding in Education

Bulgaria:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Bulgaria:Higher Education Funding

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training Funding

Bulgaria:Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Bulgaria:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Higher Education

Bulgaria:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Bulgaria:First Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Bachelor

Bulgaria:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Bulgaria:Second Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Bulgaria:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Institutions Providing Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Main Programmes and Provision in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Teachers and Education Staff

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Management and Other Education Staff

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Educational Support and Guidance

Bulgaria:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Bulgaria:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Bulgaria:Mobility and Internationalisation

Bulgaria:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Bulgaria:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:National Reforms in School Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Higher Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Bulgaria:European Perspective

Bulgaria:Legislation

Bulgaria:Institutions

Bulgaria:Bibliography

Bulgaria:Glossary

 

Steering Documents and Types of Activities

The main issues concerning pre-primary education are regulated by the Public Education Act (1991) and the acts for its amendment, The Regulations on the Implementation of the PEA. The Public Education Act from 1991 provides for creation of both preparatory groups and classes, for the purpose of better preparation of children for their education at school. A step forward in the direction of granting equal start at school for all children has been made in the Act of Amendment and Supplementation of the Public Education Act of 2002. By virtue of this amendment of the 2003/2004 school year, all children over 6 years of age must attend the preparatory group. After subsequent amendment of the Act of 2010 the age was increased and currently includes preparatory group from 5 years old to 6/7 years old children in III and IV groups in kindergartens. This means that the preparatory group began two years before children entering the first grade in primary school.

The latter act entitles parents of children with special educational needs to choose which institution should educate their child amongst the mainstream kindergartens or the special kindergartens. The state educational requirement (Regulation N 4/2000 for the pre-primary education and preparation and amendment from 2005) defines the study content of pre-primary education, presented by the attainable knowledge, skills and relations, which are assessed as a result of the education and training of children at kindergartens according to educational fields.

For the transition from pre-school education to primary education and enrollment to the 1st grade the children receive a special document – Certificate for completion of the preparatory group in the kindergarten with text “Finished preparatory group in ….. year”, signed and stamped by the principal of the kindergarten. In this certificate are described the dynamics of development, as well as his/her readiness or his/her uncompleted preparation for the school and recommendations in which fields the child should be directed as additional forms and activities. The text is “After finishing of the preparatory group in the kindergarten the child is with completely readiness or incompletely readiness for the 1st grade in school”.

This certificate is registered officially in the documents of the kindergarten and is necessary to be present by the entrance in 1st grade in the primary school.

Teaching Methods and Materials

The education of children at kindergartens aims to develop vital concepts and practical skills and habits, which are very important for further studying. The successful acquisition of these concepts, skills and habits is guaranteed by a variety of interactive methods and contemporary pedagogical technologies within the expertise of pre-primary teachers.

A basic form of organizing pedagogical interaction is the pedagogical situation. In the preparatory groups the pedagogical situations are fixed in time – in terms of duration and week day, or non-fixed in time (but still compulsory) in terms of duration and week day. 
Another well suited method useful for children's development is playing. By playing, children express different forms of behavior activities – intelectual, motorics and artistic and in the same time they begin to accumulate social experience. The teacher in the preparatory group stimulate the creative potential of the children in accordance with their individual abbilities and interestsand so that to ensure on this way self-expressing of the children in a playing situation. Through the game the children re-create their environment and personal relationship in stimulated situation.

A basic form of organizing pedagogical interaction is the pedagogical situation. In the preparatory groups the pedagogical situations are instructive and are either fixed in time – in terms of duration and week day, or non-fixed in time (but still compulsory) in terms of duration and week day.

Another well suited method useful for children's development is playing. By playing, children become familiar with the world around them, and simulate that world in their games. This, in turn, enhances their knowledge and allows them to express themselves in various ways.

Kindergartens use teaching materials and learning aids approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, as well as various audiovisual materials. 
Everywhere, "the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science" is replaced by "Ministry of Education and Science."

The State ensures completely  financing the set of educational aids for every child in the preparatory groups – from 5  to 6/7 years old (for the 3rd and 4th group) in all kindergartens in the country. There is huge variety of appliances, which are structured concerning the requirements of the state educational standards and programs, they are approved by the Ministry of Education and Science for each educational field - Bulgarian language, Mathematics, Social world, Natural world, Game culture, Artistic information and literature for children, Music, Arts, Construction-technical and every-day activities and Physical culture.
The teachers are completely free to choose the most appropriate for the group. The parents can buy only some additional appliances or some other materials and only in case that it is necessary.

The compulsory pre-primary preparation for school follows and approved program for educational fields Bulgarian language, developed on a module principle - pedagogical situations to the children with Bulgarian as family language, but non-attended kindergarten, the second module is for the children with Bulgarian as family language and attended kindergarten and the third model is for the children to who Bulgarian is not family language and they have not attended kindergarten.
The educational fields Bulgarian language is adopted and for bilingual children who need of developing of the communicative and speaking skills.


The children can learn foreign languages in kindergartens by wish of their parents and if there are possibilities to have a foreign language teacher as a part of the educational staff in the kindergarten.

Parental engagement

According to the Public Education Act (1999)
Trusteeships shall be independent voluntary associations to support the development of and provision of facilities to schools, kindergartens
Trusteeships shall be established as not-for-profit legal entities acting for public benefit.

With a view to attaining their objectives, trusteeships shall:
  • discuss and make proposals to the respective authorities for the development or resolving of current problems of kindergartens;
  • assist the raising of additional financial and material resources for the - support the establishment and support of the facilities of kindergartens;
  • participate in the selection of textbooks by the Teachers' Council to be used in the education of the children in kindergartens and provide, if possible, for their purchase;
  • assist the organisation of the supply of food to pupils, the provision of transportation and the resolving of other social problems of children, pupils and teachers kindergartens;
  • assist the development and implementation of educational programmes geared to the problems of children and pupils;
  • assist the implementation of extracurricular forms, organised recreation, tourism and sports events with children and pupils;
  • assist the involvement of parents in the organisation of leisure time of children and pupils;
  • propose measures for the improvement of the activities of kindergartens;
  • organise the general public to assist kindergartens;
  • report violations in the public education system to the competent authorities;
  • organise and support the training of parents on issues related to the upbringing and development of their children;
  • assist socially disadvantaged children and pupils;
  • assist commissions for combating anti-social behaviour of minors.

Support for children with special educational needs and their parents

One of the main goals is - the children with special educational needs to be integrated in kindergartens and schools so that they can be completely socialized in a real educational environment.

Resource centers are created to support integrated education of children with special educational needs, state units - extracurricular educational institutions in the education system. The Resource centers function in all 28 regions in the country.
The Resource Center carries out activities in accordance with the state policy in the field of integrated education by supporting the successful integration and socialization of children and pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in the educational environment.

Specialists Resource Center support full integration of children and pupils with special educational needs in the educational and social environment by implementing corrective therapeutic activities with them, consulting with parents and teachers in consultation with teaching teams, implementation of activities to support the full inclusion of these children and students in public life.
Resource centers are funded by:
1. the state budget;
2. own incomes.

Inclusive education

The project is funded by the Operational Programme "Human Resources Development", co-financed by the European Social Fund of the European Union, Beneficient - The Ministry of Education and Science

Common goal
To provide a supportive environment for equal access to education and open education system with the aim of inclusive education.
Specific aims
• Early identification of children at risk of learning difficulties, and their successful inclusion in pre-primary and school education, successful socialization and integration.
• Provide a supportive environment of psychologists, resource teachers, speech therapists and/or other specialists for students and children deprived of parental care and using services from residential tip involved in the process of deinstitutionalization.

Activity 1
Early assessment and prevention of learning difficulties in children of pre-primary age
Training of psychologists and speech therapists in the implementation of a screening test for children from 3 years of age, who have a risk of learning difficulties, in children, for which there are indications for the presence of learning disabilities .
Carry out the test by trained professionals - speech therapists and psychologists in all kindergartens with children 3 years of age and determination of the 25 pilot kindergartens in the country, which result from the application of the test groups were formed for children who are at risk of learning difficulties or are indications of the occurrence of learning difficulties.
Development of tests to determine the language development of children of 4 -, 5 - and 6- years old.
Training of 25 speech pilot kindergartens for the implementation of tests to determine the language development of children of 4 -, 5 - and 6- years old.
Approbation of  the test at 25 pilot kindergartens.
Forming a team of speech therapists and psychologists, appointment and training of team members to work with groups of children who are at risk of learning difficulties or are indications of risk of learning disabilities in the developed sample programs.