This page was last modified on 22 February 2013, at 21:28.

Bulgaria:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Bulgaria

Contents

Bulgaria:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Bulgaria:Historical Development

Bulgaria:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Bulgaria:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Bulgaria:Political and Economic Situation

Bulgaria:Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Bulgaria:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Bulgaria:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Bulgaria:Organisation of Private Education

Bulgaria:National Qualifications Framework

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Bulgaria:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Funding in Education

Bulgaria:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Bulgaria:Higher Education Funding

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training Funding

Bulgaria:Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Bulgaria:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Higher Education

Bulgaria:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Bulgaria:First Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Bachelor

Bulgaria:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Bulgaria:Second Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Bulgaria:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Institutions Providing Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Main Programmes and Provision in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Teachers and Education Staff

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Management and Other Education Staff

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Educational Support and Guidance

Bulgaria:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Bulgaria:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Bulgaria:Mobility and Internationalisation

Bulgaria:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Bulgaria:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:National Reforms in School Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Higher Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Bulgaria:European Perspective

Bulgaria:Legislation

Bulgaria:Institutions

Bulgaria:Bibliography

Bulgaria:Glossary

Definition of the Target Group(s)

Children and pupils with special education needs may be trained at the following specialized kindergartens and schools:

  • kindergartens with speech therapists from 3 to 7 years of age; 
  • schools for children with visual impairment from I to XII class;
  • schools for children with hearing impairment from I to XII class and schools for children with intellectual disabilities from I to VIII class;

At special schools for children with visual impairment, with hearing impairment, and mentally retarded children classes may be formed for children with multiple disabilities.

Special kindergartens and special schools are functioning as institutions in liaison with other kindergartens, schools and other service units within the system of national education, with specialized institution for children, with parents, guardians or trustees and with society.

Activity of specialized kindergartens and the specialized schools is directed towards education and training ensuring successful social integration and professional realization of children and pupils with special education needs in the environment of general education.

Vocational education and training can be opened at special schools for students with visual impairment and for children with hearing impairment classes, provided that there is no other school which can provided that kind of training in the area.

Special schools can open classes for partial acquisition of a profession or for acquisition of a first degree professional qualification for students who have completed the 8th grade at these schools. Specialized schools also organize education for students with intellectual disabilities until 16 years of age, who are accommodated at the homes for intellectually disables juveniles. Training of intellectually disabled juveniles may be pursued at the same home after preliminary coordination with the regional inspectorate on education and with the headmaster of the home.

Schools with children and pupils with visual and hearing impairments can open specialized classes in arts and sports. Schools with children and students with visual and hearing impairment provide resource assistance to integrated children and pupils with special educational needs.

Admission Requirements and Choice of School

Guidance of children and students at specialized kindergartens and special schools is performed by the Complex pedagogic assessment teams at the regional inspectorates on education and by an Expert committee at the Ministry of education, Youth and Science. Guidance of children and pupils toward specialized kindergartens and specialized schools is performed after having exhausted all possibilities for integrated education and with explicitly expressed willingness in writing on behalf of the parents. Assessment and guidance of the children and students towards certain type and form of education may be appealed before the Minister of education, youth and science.

The list of children and pupils who may be trained at specialизед kindergartens and schools is approved by the Minister of education, youth and science. The Order of the Minister of education, youth and science regulates only the right but not the obligation of the children and students to get trained at special kindergartens and special schools. Parent’s choice plays a decisive role.

Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils

Legislation ensures equality for pupils with special needs concerning their transition from one stage of education to another. The goal is for these students to meet the state educational requirements for learning content of class, stage and level of education. In case they fail to meet them they are entitled to continue their training on individual educational programs.

After finishing primary school pupils who have met state educational requirements for learning content can major at the high school stage of secondary education at schools of general education or for acquisition a degree of professional qualification at a vocational school. Pupils with special needs who cannot meet state educational requirements may also major their education at non-specialized classes at schools with general education or at vocational schools for acquisition of a first degree of professional qualification while training on individual educational programs.

Students at specialized schools where training for children with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities (as well as for students with multimple impairments from grades I to IV) do not repeat classes.

Curriculum, Subjects

Education at specialized schools is conducted through typical syllabuses and a special curriculum approved by the Minister of education, youth and science
Typical syllabuses of the school for children with visual impairment and hearing impairment, including all educational subjects, studied by the pupils of the schools of general education and special subjects, related to the type of impairment or disorder of the pupils.

Curriculums on specialized subjects for children and students with impaired hearing include:

  • individual formulation and development of verbal speech;
  • development of speech, musical stimulations, phonetic rhythmic and motorics;
  • speech and object activity

They are designed to support the overall development of children and pupils with impaired hearing, and providing help for achieving hearing and speech rehabilitation, and developing skills for independent life by means of total communication.

Curriculums on specialized subjects for children and pupils with visual impairment include visual support, orientation and mobility and useful skills, designed to support overall development of children and pupils with visual impairment by promoting compensation for the blindness and poor vision and for developing skills for independent life. 

Only children and pupils with multiple mental impairments are trained аt schools for children with intellectual disabilities. Individual educational programs for children and pupils with multiple impairments focus on the following areas: 

  • general motoric development (fine and gross motoric skills);
  • self-service skills;
  • cognitive skills;
  • speech-language development and communication;
  • social skills;
  • artistic activity;
  • labor therapy;
  • learning activity.

Teaching Methods and Materials

Specialized schools as well as schools of general education where children with special education needs are trained in integrated way by an order of the headmaster, establish teams consisting of: chairperson – teacher at the class and members:

  • psychologist, and/or pedagogical consultant;
  • resource teacher, teacher – special pedagogue;
  • speech therapist;
  • teachers on different subjects. 

Parents or guardians and, if necessary, other experts also take part in the teamwork. The team evaluates educational needs and develops individual educational programs for their education, training and progress. These programs are approved by the headmaster of the relevant school.

Training of children and pupils with impaired vision is performed on the basis of textbooks, teaching aids and materials of Braille letters or larger font, or using a computer speech synthesizer. Braille’s textbooks and materials are provided free both for the pupils at special schools and the pupils with impaired vision, who are trained in an integral way in the framework of the environment of general education.

Syllabuses of special schools for children with impaired hearing incorporate learning of gesture-and-mimic language as auxiliary means. Textbooks for children with impaired hearing are also free.

Progression of Pupils

Assessment of children and pupils at specialized kindergartens and schools is carried out in accordance with the requirements set out in the individual programs for early influence and early rehabilitation of children with impaired vision and children with impaired hearing, in the curriculum on special subjects for children and pupils with impaired hearing, and for children and pupils with impaired vision at the state education requirement for the assessment system, time-frames, responsible institutions and necessary funds as well as indicators for performance assessment of the goals.

Pupils who have finished VIII class of a specialизед school may continue their education in the IX grade of schools which organize vocational education in part of a profession or in profession for acquisition of first degree of professional qualification, IX grade of non-specialized class at secondary schools of general education or high schools on individual educational program. Pupil guidance is performed by the complex pedagogic assessment team at the relevant regional inspectorate on education. 

Certification

In cаse of successfully passed examination, schools for children with impaired vision or hearing issue certificates for a complete grade, level or degree of education which are identical to certificates issued by general education schools. They allow their holders to continue their education without any restrictions.

Schools for children with intellectual disabilities can only issue documents for a completed grade, which allows them to pass on to the next grade. After 8thgrade they can continue their education in a non-profiled class in a general education school and following an individual program. Alternatively, they can enroll in schools, offering training for a partial acquisition of a professional qualification or a first degree of professional qualification.