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Bulgaria:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

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Overview Bulgaria

Contents

Bulgaria:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Bulgaria:Historical Development

Bulgaria:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Bulgaria:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Bulgaria:Political and Economic Situation

Bulgaria:Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Bulgaria:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Bulgaria:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Bulgaria:Organisation of Private Education

Bulgaria:National Qualifications Framework

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Bulgaria:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Funding in Education

Bulgaria:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Bulgaria:Higher Education Funding

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training Funding

Bulgaria:Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Bulgaria:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Higher Education

Bulgaria:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Bulgaria:First Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Bachelor

Bulgaria:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Bulgaria:Second Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Bulgaria:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Institutions Providing Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Main Programmes and Provision in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Teachers and Education Staff

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Management and Other Education Staff

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Educational Support and Guidance

Bulgaria:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Bulgaria:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Bulgaria:Mobility and Internationalisation

Bulgaria:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Bulgaria:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:National Reforms in School Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Higher Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Bulgaria:European Perspective

Bulgaria:Legislation

Bulgaria:Institutions

Bulgaria:Bibliography

Bulgaria:Glossary

In accordance with the Constitution, Bulgaria is a parliamentarian republic based on the principles of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial. Head of State is the President of Republic of Bulgaria, who is simultaneously Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Bulgarian Army. He presides over the National Security Council. In addition to these mostly representative functions, specified by the Constitution, yet he is entitled to other rights, the most important of which are: to impose a suspensory veto on laws adopted by the National Assembly, to appoint the supreme command of the Bulgarian Army and the Ambassadors of Bulgaria in other countries, etc. The President is elected directly by the people in majoritarian system for a period of 5 years and can carry a maximum of two 5-year terms.

Legislative power is exercised by the National Assembly (Parliament) which is elected for a period of 4 years through a mixed-electoral system by all Bulgarian citizens aged 18 and older. Parliament’s headquarter is in Sofia and it is empowered by the Constitution to adopt laws, resolutions, declarations, etc. (including in the sphere of education).

Executive power is a prerogative of the Council of Ministers which is presided by the Prime-Minister. The Prime-Minister is elected by the Parliament for a period of 4 years and he/she proposes the structure and the staff of the Council of Ministers. He/she may propose a cabinet reshuffle to the Parliament. The Council of Ministers prepares and initiates laws, develops and adopts national programs and strategies, prepares and adopts secondary normative acts like decrees, decisions, and regulations aimed at implementation of laws and other strategic documents. The Council of Ministers determines and appoints the regional governors who are bodies of the executive power in the relevant administrative units (Regions).

Administrative Territorial Division of the Republic of Bulgaria by the Constitution stipulates that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is divided into regions and municipalities. Municipalities are administrative territorial units in which local self-government takes place.  In other areas, which are also administrative territorial units, state government is carried out locally in line with regional interests. Head of the Region is the Governor, who is appointed by the Council of Ministers and assisted by the regional administration. Local administration is carried out in the regions and they are the foundation on which the territorial administration is implemented. There are 28 administrative regions in Bulgaria including the city of Sofia which is set as a separate administrative unit with the status of a region (Sofia-capital).

Administrative Division.JPG

Figure1:

Regions of the country are established by a decree of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria. /OG,N.2/08.01.1999/: Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Veliko Tarnovo, Varna, Vidin, Vratsa, Gabrovo, Dobrich, Kardzali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia-capital, Sofia, Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Haskovo, Shumen and Yambol /Fig. 1/

The Constitution of Republic of Bulgaria defines the municipality as a major administrative territorial unit, where the local self-government takes place as a legal person. Its status is settled in the local government law. Legislatively defined public political status of the municipality has three aspects: political, territorial and juridical. From the perspective of the population education, the most important is the municipality status as a legal entity which entitles it to have its own property and budget; in this case - municipal kindergartens, municipal schools (of general education and vocational, etc).