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Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Bulgaria

Contents

Bulgaria:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Bulgaria:Historical Development

Bulgaria:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Bulgaria:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Bulgaria:Political and Economic Situation

Bulgaria:Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Bulgaria:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Bulgaria:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Bulgaria:Organisation of Private Education

Bulgaria:National Qualifications Framework

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Bulgaria:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Funding in Education

Bulgaria:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Bulgaria:Higher Education Funding

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training Funding

Bulgaria:Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Bulgaria:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Higher Education

Bulgaria:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Bulgaria:First Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Bachelor

Bulgaria:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Bulgaria:Second Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Bulgaria:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Institutions Providing Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Main Programmes and Provision in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Teachers and Education Staff

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Management and Other Education Staff

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Educational Support and Guidance

Bulgaria:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Bulgaria:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Bulgaria:Mobility and Internationalisation

Bulgaria:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Bulgaria:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:National Reforms in School Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Higher Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Bulgaria:European Perspective

Bulgaria:Legislation

Bulgaria:Institutions

Bulgaria:Bibliography

Bulgaria:Glossary

Institutions, Level and Model of Training

Teachers within the framework of pre-school and school education have higher education and qualification degree of ‘specialist in …’, ‘bachelor’ or ‘master’ as well as administrative and pedagogical functions qualification. The professional qualification ‘teacher’ is acquired at higher schools meeting the requirements of the Higher Education Law and the Ordinance on Common State Requirements for Acquiring Teacher’s Professional Qualification by students of specialties of the corresponding educational and qualification degree, whose education is organized in compliance with the respective state requirements for those specialties and the requirements of the Ordinance.‘Teacher’ professional qualification can be acquired:

  • concurrently with acquiring one’s respective educational qualification degree;
  • consecutively after graduation.

Admission Requirements

The admission requirements for acquiring a pedagogical degree vary depending on the higher education institution, but typically include sitting an entry exam of the student's choice, or alternatively, applying using the grade from the state examination (Matura) after completing secondary education.

Curriculum, Level of Specialisation and Learning Outcomes

The Ordinance on the Common State Requirements for Acquiring a Teacher's Professional Qualification sets out 4 mandatory subject areas:

  • Pedagogy (theory of upbringing and didactics) - 60 hours;
  • Psychology (general, adult and pedagogical) - 45 hours;
  • Audiovisual and IT for learning purposes - 15 hours;
  • Teaching methodics - 60 hours.

By the same Ordinance, students are required to have a certain number of practice-oriented activities prior to graduation. They are as follows:

  • Lesson simulation and evaluation under qualified supervision - 30 hours;
  • Pedagogical practice - 45 hours;
  • Pre-graduation pedagogical practice - 75 hours.

The 45 hours of pedagogical practice includes attending school lessons and other forms of training, aiming preprataion for the pre-graduation pedagogical practice. A minimum of 75 hours of actual non-assisted pedagogical practice in a school are required for the completion of every pedagogical degree or qualification.

Additional Provisions

For each group in kindergarten there are two teachers who teach in the field of pre-school pedagogy as general practitioners and study more than one subject. The main task of any teacher is to organize the educational processes and establish conditions at kindergartens to the well-being of all children. They can choose among a range of training programs and work on full-time basis i.e. six hours per day. Music teachers have special musical education and should be able to play at least one musical instrument (piano, accordion, etc.). One music teacher is appointed for 12 groups of children and his/her task is to organize and provide musical environment for the children in order to boost their musical, aesthetic and creative development. At larger kindergartens of more than 8 groups psychologists are appointed. They have higher education and qualification in the corresponding relevant area. They can work on full-time basis as well as under a specific contract for certain hours and activities.

While the abovementioned requirements are sufficient for elementary school teachers, high school teachers need a degree in the specific subject they are going to teach.

For work with children and students with special education needs one should have additional professional qualification in the corresponding direction of the ‘special pedagogy’ (‘defectology’) specialty. Specialists – teachers in subject from the arts field (music, dancing, drawing etc.), sports and foreign languages teaching in education institutions should have been trained in the respective professional direction and education and qualification degree ‘specialist in…’, ‘bachelor’ or ‘master’.

Teacher educators

Teachers of educators can only be people within a higher education institution with an acquired PhD in a pedagogical degree.

Qualification, Evaluation and Certificates

The Ministry of education, youth and science has listed the necessary requirements for the pedagogical and methodological qualification of teachers:

  • is able to identify level of competency, specifics and preferences in learning style of both the class and the individual student;
  • is able to identify educational and developmental needs;
  • is able to define in a clear and concrete way educational goals on all levels - curriculum, lesson sections, concrete lessons;
  • knows various methods for planning the educational process; develops various educational materials and knows how to link goals to the educational process and the expected results;
  • knows various educational strategies, methods and techniques for teaching, educating, learning and motivating students;
  • knows how to assess the qualities and suitability of educational and teaching materials, developed to meet different educational needs;
  • knows various forms and means for quality control and evaluation of both students' achievements and the results of the educational process.

The most important test for each student is the abovementioned required practice work during which professors can evaluate their students' performance and stimulate them to acquire the necessary skills.

Students in pedagogical degrees receive a diploma for their respective degree, whereas all other students receive a professional qualification certificate. The certificate is not valid unless accompanied by a higher education diploma.

Alternative Training Pathways

Currenlty there are no ways of attaining a teaching professional qualification, other than those offered by higher education institutions.