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Bulgaria:Glossary

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Overview Bulgaria

Contents

Bulgaria:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Bulgaria:Historical Development

Bulgaria:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Bulgaria:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Bulgaria:Political and Economic Situation

Bulgaria:Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Bulgaria:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Bulgaria:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Bulgaria:Organisation of Private Education

Bulgaria:National Qualifications Framework

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Bulgaria:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Bulgaria:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Bulgaria:Funding in Education

Bulgaria:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Bulgaria:Higher Education Funding

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training Funding

Bulgaria:Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Bulgaria:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Bulgaria:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Lower Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Bulgaria:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Bulgaria:Higher Education

Bulgaria:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Bulgaria:First Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Bachelor

Bulgaria:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Bulgaria:Second Cycle Programmes

Bulgaria:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Bulgaria:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Bulgaria:Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Institutions Providing Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Main Programmes and Provision in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Teachers and Education Staff

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Management and Other Education Staff

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Bulgaria:Management Staff for Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Educational Support and Guidance

Bulgaria:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Bulgaria:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Bulgaria:Mobility and Internationalisation

Bulgaria:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Bulgaria:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Bulgaria:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Bulgaria:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Bulgaria:National Reforms in School Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Bulgaria:National Reforms in Higher Education

Bulgaria:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Bulgaria:European Perspective

Bulgaria:Legislation

Bulgaria:Institutions

Bulgaria:Bibliography

Bulgaria:Glossary


Academic staff

Teaching, research-teaching or artistic-creative staff in a higher education institution.

Academic Board

The Academic Board is the authority vested with the governance of a higher school’s educational and research activities through:

1.      determining the higher school’s educational policy, adopting the programme for the term of its powers and supervising its implementation;

2.      adopting an annual report on the activities and an annual report on the financial and physical indicators of the higher school;

3.      making proposals in the instances as per Article 9 (3), Item 3 of the Higher Education Act;

 3a. taking decisions as to the establishment, transformation or closure of departments, chairs and auxiliary units of the higher school;

4.      determining the specialties, forms and degrees of learning and proposing annually to the Minister of Education and Science the number of students and doctoral candidates to be enrolled under Article 9 (3), item 6, letters (a) and (b) of the Higher Education Act;

5.      approving or changing the qualification descriptions and curricula of specialist training for the various degrees or at the higher school’s colleges;

6.      determining the higher school’s research policies and taking decisions on major issues as to the organization and contents of research activities;

7.      determining the General Assembly’s composition and the manner and organization of electing its members;

8.       determining the higher school’s human resources policy, approving the job descriptions of the faculty and adopting rules for the assessment of faculty members;

9.      electing Vice Rectors based on a proposal made by the Rector;

10.   take decision for:

 a) association with Bulgarian and/or foreign higher schools for the purpose of implementation of joint training of students, doctoral students and postgraduate students, of educational activities and lifelong learning and education franchise, as well as for association with higher schools and other organizations in the Republic of Bulgaria and abroad upon fulfillment of the activities under art.21, (1), pt.8 of the Higher Education Act;

b) conclusion of agreements for joint educational activities and realization of joint training programs together with foreign higher schools, for establishment of new educational units abroad, as well as agreements for joint research, artistic creation, project and innovation activities and other forms of joint activities together with foreign higher schools and organizations, accredited in accordance with the legislation of the respective state;

c) membership in international organizations;

 d) recognition of higher education, obtained abroad for the purpose of continuation of the training in the higher school;

11.  adopting annually the higher school’s budget and overseeing its implementation;

12.   proposing annually to the Minister of Education and Science the amount of the application and tuition fees for students and doctoral candidates under Article 9 (3), item 7 of the Higher Education Act. For some categories of students and doctoral candidates the Academic Board may specify fees in an amount which is less than the one approved by the Council of Ministers;

13.  awarding the doctor honoris causa honorary title;

14.   adopting the rules for particular educational, scientific, creative or research and production activities carried out by the higher school;

15.   validating a system of assessing and maintaining the quality of instruction and faculty’s performance at the higher school in accordance with Article 6 (4) of the Higher Education Act, and exercising control over its implementation and improvement

16.   electing members of the Board of Trustees

The Academic Board shall be made up of 25 to 45 members and shall comprise representatives of all full-time faculty members in the higher school’s employ, students, doctoral candidates, and employees.

At least 70 percent of all Academic Board members shall be habilitated faculty members having academic rank, and 15 percent of all Academic Board members shall be representatives of students and doctoral candidates. The Rector alone shall be a member of the Academic Board by right.

Academic autonomy

A basic principle of exertising higher education institutions’activity. The academic autonomy shall include academic freedoms, academic self-government and inviolability of the territory of the higher school.

Academic community

The academic community comprises of all faculty, students, doctoral candidates, and specializing trainees.

Academic freedom

The academic freedom is expressed in the freedom of teaching, the freedom of research works, the freedom of creative activities, the freedom of training, the freedom of association with other higher schools and scientific organizations for the purpose of exercising joint educational activities and education franchise with other higher schools as well as the freedom of joint research, artistic creation, project and innovation activities exercised together with other higher schools and organizations in the Republic of Bulgaria and abroad.

Academic posts

The academic posts are:

 1. "Assistant";

 2. "Chief Assistant";

 3. "Associate Professor";

 4. " Professor ".

Academic self-governance

The academic self-governance finds expression in:

 1. the electiveness of all bodies with a fixed term of office;

2. the right of any higher school to regulate its constitution and activities in its own Rules of Operation (Rulebook) in keeping with this Act;

3. the independent choice of faculty, admission requirements and forms of training students and postgraduates;

4. the independent development and implementation of curricula and research projects;

5. the choice of specialties to be taught;

6. the right to announce competitions and appoint faculty under the terms and conditions set forth in the Academic Staff Development Act;

7. the right to raise funds and independently decide on the terms and conditions for their appropriation;

8. the right to independently conclude contracts with the state or with other users for basic and applied research in the field of artistic and creative, project and innovative activity, as well as for upgrading the qualifications of specialists with higher education;

9. right of association with Bulgarian and/or foreign higher schools, accredited in accordance with the legislation of the respective state, for the purpose of exercising joint training of students, doctoral students and postgraduate students, of educational activities and lifelong learning, of education franchise, as well as the right of association with higher schools and other organizations in the Republic of Bulgaria and abroad upon fulfillment of the activities under pt. 8 of the Higher Education Act;

10. the right to conclude contracts with the organizations under Article 47 (1) of the Higher Education Act for:

 a) the training of specialists in the master’s educational and qualification degree under Article 42 (1), item 2, letters (b) and (c) of the Higher Education Act within the capacity of the professional areas for which the higher school has been accredited, as well as the training at the organizations under Article 47 (1) may include only practical exercises and seminars, self-preparation at laboratories, libraries and other auxiliary units of research organizations;

b) the training of specialists in the doctor’s educational and research degree in doctor's programmes for which the higher school and the organization under Article 47 (1) have been accredited;

 c) research, artistic, creative, sports and health activities in accordance with the specificities of the higher school;

11. the right to construct, hold or use facilities requisite for educational and research activities, or for provision of welfare services to students, faculty staff, doctoral candidates and employees;

12. right of organization of international cooperation, membership in international organizations, conclusion of agreements for joint educational activities and education franchise agreements with foreign higher schools upon observance of the requirements of § 4, (4) of the supplementary provisions of the Higher Education Act, as well as agreements for joint research, artistic creation, project and innovation activities and other forms of joint activities with foreign higher schools and organizations, accredited in accordance with the legislation of the respective state;

 13. right of recognition, in accordance with the state requirements, of higher education degree awarded abroad or study periods spent in foreign higher schools, accredited in accordance with the legislation of the respective state, for the purpose of continuation of the training in the higher school that performs the recognition.

Accreditation

Accreditation is the recognition by the National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency of the right of higher schools to give higher education by educational and qualification degrees in certain spheres, professional areas and specialties related to regulated professions through the assessment of the quality of their activities under Paragraph (6) of the Higher Education Act.

The objective of assessment and accreditation is to stimulate higher schools to develop their potential and to upgrade and maintain the quality of the education they offer.

Accreditation results shall be taken into consideration in formulating the state policy in respect to the higher school.

The National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency shall evaluate all projects for opening and transformation of a higher school, a faculty, an affiliate and a college, as well as for opening professional areas and specialties related to regulated professions.

The right of higher schools and organizations under Article 47(1) of the Higher Education Act to conduct studies for the doctor’s educational and academic degree by doctor's programmes shall also be subject to accreditation.

 There shall be institutional and programme accreditation.

Assistant

Academic post. Higher education and research institutions shall hire an assistant post on the grounds of a labour contract with a specified ending date.

Bachelor

Educational and qualificational degree within the higher education system. The requirements for awarding a bachelor’s degree according to the syllabus are:

a)      Not less than 180 ECTS credits with a duration of study not less than 3 years – “Professional Bachelor in..”;

b)      Not less than 240 ECTS credits with a duration of study not less than 4 years;

Education for acquisition of a Bachelor/Professional Bachelor in.. degree in any given specialty completes with a state examination or a defendance of a diploma thesis.

The educational and qualification degrees of a Bachelor and a Professional Bachelor in.. are placed on level 6 of the Bulgarian Qualifications Framework, which corresponds to level 6 of the European Qualifications Framework and the first cycle of the Qualifications Framework fir the European Higher Education Area.

Validation

The process of assessing and recognising a wide range of knowledge, know-how, skills and competencies which people develop throughout their lives in different contexts, for example through education, work and leisure activities. It typically leads to certification – degree of education or of professional qualification. Certain type of validation procedures allow recognition of key competencies obtained or developed through non-formal and/or informal education. Knowledge and skills that are a part of vocation and/or individual modules can also be validated, which leads to upgrading competences and credit transfer. Validation is one of the main mechanisms ensuring qualifications mobility and transparency.

Higher education institution (also called a higher school)

A legal entity whose nature of business is:

1.        training of specialists competent to develop and apply scientific knowledge in all various areas of human activities;

2.        upgrading the qualification of specialists;

3.        development of science, culture and innovations

Any higher school shall be entitled to engage in scientific research, development and manufacture, artistic and creative production, sports and health services congruent with its specific nature.

Higher schools are public and private. Public higher schools shall be established and function on the basis of the state property given at their disposal and the annual state subsidy. Private higher schools shall be established at the request of individual citizens and/or legal entities, hereinafter referred to as "founders.

Higher schools shall be established as legal entities upon the promulgation of the decision of the National Assembly on its establishment in the official State Gazette. Higher schools shall be closed by the National Assembly.

Higher schools are universities, specialize higher schools and self-contained colleges. Higher schools shall have primary and auxiliary units and affiliates.

Higher schools shall perform their overall activities in adherence to the principle of academic autonomy and in compliance with the laws of this country.

Adult

Any person of 16 and more years.

Internal system for assessment and management of quality of training and of the academic staff

The internal system for assessment and management of quality of training and of the academic staff is atmed at quality evaluation, quality management and quality contril with respect to the training in all specialties and professional fields and the academic staff of a higher education institution. It includes students’opinion, at least on annual basis, too. The functions and the structure of such a system, as well as the manner of studying the students’opinion, and the procedure for publishing the outcomes of the study, are regulated by the Rules of Procedure of the higher education institution.

Chief assistant

According to Article 18a (1) of the Law on Academic Staff Development in the Republic of Bulgaria, the academic post of a chief assistant is to be occupied only by holders of a Doctor’s educational and scientific degree in the respective research field. This paragraph was announced by the Constitutional Court as against the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria – State Gazette issue 81 of 2010.

In medical universities or medical faculties and university hospitals, in higher education institutions in the field of Art, as well as in higher education institutions within the system of the Ministry of Interior, the chief assistant post can be occuried by professionals who are not holders of a Doctor’s degree, when this is foreseen in the Rules of Procedure of the respective higher education institution. The academic post of a chief assistant is to be occupied on a competitive basis.

Dean

The Dean:

1. is vested with the faculty’s management and has also the authority to represent it;

2. is by right a member of the Faculty Board and its Chairperson;

3. puts forth to the Faculty (School) Board the candidacies of habilitated faculty members for Deputy Deans;

4. performs functions arising out of the law and the higher school’s Rules of Operations (Rulebook).

department

A department is a higher school’s primary unit tasked with provision of training in one or more subjects that do not constitute a specialty. A department must employ minimum fourteen (14) full-time faculty members.

A department’s structure, as well as its governing bodies’ constitution and functions shall be laid down in the respective higher school’s Rules of Operations (Rulebook).

Kindergartens

Institutions within the pre-school education system for training and upbringing of children from 3 years of age to entering first class.

Doctor

Educational and scientific degree of a Doctor within the higher education system. This degree is awarded to a doctoral candidate who has passed the examinations foreseen in his/her individual syllabus and has defended a dissertation thesis according to the Academic Staff Development Act.

The higher school has the right to provide training for acquisition of the educational and scientific degree of a Doctor only in accredited specialties in line with the conditions set by Article 80 (2) of the Higher Education Act.

The Bulgarian Academy of Science, the Agricultural Academy, the national centres on public health and other research organizations can provide training for acquisition of a Doctor’s degree using accredited doctoral programmes and in line with the requirements set in Article 46 (2), (4) and (6) of the Higher Education Act.

Doctoral training is performed using individual syllabi and includes preparation for examinations and sitting for these examinations, teaching activity, and a defense of a dissertation thesis.

The educational and scientific degree of a Doctor is placed on level 8 of the Bulgarian qualifications framework, which corresponds to level 8 of the European Qualifications Framework and the third cycle of the Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area.

Doctoral candidate

A holder of a Master’s degree who study for acquisition of a Doctor’s degree. 

Access to education

and training

Conditions, circumstances or requirements, stipulated in the regulatory framework and/or defined by the education/training institution governing admittance and participation to educational institutions or programmes.

Associate Professor

An academic post. The eligible applicants for hiring on the academic post of an associate professor should:

 1. be holders of the educational and scientific degree of a Doctor;

 2. at least two years:

 a) have been hired on the academic post of an assistant, chief assistant or

 b) have been teachers, including on a not permanent contract or research team members in the same or in another higher educational or research institution or

 c) have been practicing artistic-creative activity or

 d) have been professionals in practice having proved achievements in the respective field;

 3. have submitted a monography or publications of an equal value published in specialized research magazines or proofs of respective artistic-creative achievements in the field of Art, which should not replicate those presented while acquiring the educational and scientific degree of a Doctor and for awarding the research degree of a Doctor of Science.

The academic degree of an Associate Professor is awarded upon a competitive selection procedure. Such a competition should be open in case if the higher education or research institution can ensure the respective teaching or research workload according to its Rules of procedure.

State educational requirements

State educational requirements shall determine the levels of indispensably required general education and vocational training, and shall also ensure favourable conditions for:

1. development of free, moral and enterprising personalities who, as Bulgarian citizens respect the laws, as well as any other individual's rights, culture, language and religion;

2. satisfaction of any individual interests and needs, and acquisition of broad general knowledge;

3. attainment of basic scientific concepts and principles for integrating past experience with new knowledge in the different spheres of science and practice;

4. choice of options for training and vocational qualifications in accordance with the students' potential and the schools chosen by them;

5. enhancement of the physical resources and the cultural and natural environment of all kindergartens, schools and auxiliary units.

State educational requirements shall be applicable to:

1. pre-school education and training;

2. educational degrees, the general educational minima and the curriculum;

3. content of instruction and educational courses;

4. efficient and effective learning of the literary Bulgarian language;

5. system and methods of assessment;

6. vocational education and training;

7. attainment of professional qualifications in the various vocations;

8. teaching of children and pupils with special educational needs and/or chronic diseases;

9. school textbooks and learning aids;

10. documentation applicable in the system of public education;

11. extracurricular and out-of-school activities;

12. teaching certificates and teachers' professional qualifications;

13. material and technical facilities of the schools;

14. provision of health care;

15. ensuring safe conditions for education and work;

16. scientific, information and library services;

17. annual cost of education per child and pupil/student in state-owned and municipal kindergartens, schools and auxiliary units;

18. standardisation and remuneration of labour in the system of public education;

19. inspection of the public education system.

European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for Lifelong Learning

A common European reference framework created for the purpose of ensuring a common European base (reference point) to relate the separate qualifications levels of the national qualifications systems. It serves as a translation device relating any particular national qualifications system, through the EQF, to another.

The EQF is an overarching framework. It encompasses the whole system of education and training in the context of lifelong learning, using an approach based on learning outcomes. The EQF consists of 8 levels in which the qualifications are placed. Descriptors are used for each EQF level to define the required knowledge, skills and competences of the learning outcomes to be acquired by learners. The top three levels (6, 7 and 8) correspond to the three cycles of the Bologna process (Bachelor, Master and Ph. D.).

The EQF contributes for improving transparency and understanding of the qualifications in Europe, facilitates the mobility of learners and workers and the recognition of qualifications, promotes quality assurance in education, validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning, as well as the development of national qualifications frameworks.

Mandatory education

Mandatory education (ME) is essentially general education and ensures the achieving of the general education minimum.

Mandatory optional education

 

Mandatory elective education (MOE) shall ensure additional schooling in subjects from the cultural and education fields referred to in Article 10, and/or the vocational training corresponding to the interests and individual capabilities of the students and of the school. The mandatory elective education shall include the study of the mother tongue and religion.

Higher Education Act

This Act regulates the constitution, functions, management and financing of higher education in the Republic of Bulgaria.

Protected school

According to the Public Education Act, "protected school" is a school which, if closed, would have violated the access to education.

(2) The criteria for the designation of protected schools and the list of protected schools are adopted by the Council of Ministers.

(3) Schools under par. 2 shall be determined taking into account the objective geographic and demographic factors, the availability of road infrastructure and the remoteness of the school from the nearest other school.

(4) The list under par. 2 updated annually before the end of the year and published on the official website of the Ministry of Education and Science on the Internet.

(5) Status of protected school becomes a school, which, if closed, his students will not be able to train at the nearest central school due to lack of capacity and inability to meet health and hygiene requirements therein.

(6) Protected schools can not be closed. Protected schools receive additional funding under the terms and conditions laid down by the Council of Ministers.

Knowledge

‘knowledge’ means the outcome of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge is the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study. In the context of the European Qualifications Framework, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual.

Higher school’s property

A higher school’s property shall involve title and other interest, estate and property rights.

The real properties granted to the higher schools by the State shall be state-owned public property.

Institute

An institute is a higher school’s primary unit bringing together faculty staff assigned to conducting long-term scientific research.

An institute’s structure, as well as its governing bodies’ constitution and functions shall be prescribed by the higher school’s Academic Board.

Institutions within the vocational education and training system

The institutions providing initial vocational education and training are:

1.      vocational schools

2.      vocational high schools;

3.      art schools;

4.      sport schools;

5.       vocational colleges;

6.      vocational training centres;

7.      Vocational information and guidance centres;

8.      Centres for qualification of trainees.

Vocational schools, vocational high schools, and vocational colleges may be public, municipal and private, Bulgarian with foreign participation and foreign. \They can be opened, transformed, and closed according to the Public Education Act.

Institutions within the public education system

The system of public education shall include kindergartens, schools and auxiliary units.

Kindergartens and schools shall be state-owned, municipal and private. Auxiliary units shall be state-owned and municipal.

State-owned shall be such kindergartens, schools and auxiliary units that are of national significance and are financed by the state budget through the Ministry of Education and Science, or through

other ministries and agencies as well. Any real estate and/or other property placed at their disposal shall be public state property.

The kindergartens under the Ministry of Defense intended for education, upbringing and rearing children of servicemen and civilian employees of the Ministry of Defense and financed from the Ministry's budget shall also be state-owned. The properties granted for their use shall be public state property.

Municipal shall be all kindergartens, schools and auxiliary units that are financed by the municipal budgets. Any real estate and/or other property placed at their disposal shall be public municipal property.

All state-owned and municipal kindergartens, schools and auxiliary units shall be legal entities.

State-owned kindergartens, state-owned and municipal schools and auxiliary units shall be opened, transformed and closed by executive order of the Minister of Education and Science.  State-owned kindergartens to the Ministry of Defense shall be opened, transformed and closed by executive order of the Minister of Defense in coordination with the Minister of Education and Science.

Municipal schools and auxiliary units shall be open, transformed and closed by executive order of the Minister of Education and Science upon the respective municipal council's proposal. State-owned and municipal kindergartens, schools and auxiliary units shall achieve the status of legal entities, or shall cease to function as of the day of promulgation of the executive order to that effect in the State Gazette, unless otherwise provided therein.

Capacity of the higher school, professional area or specialty related to regulated professions

The maximum number of students and doctoral candidates that can be trained at the higher school, professional area or specialty related to regulated professions in the course of an academic year in accordance with the assured quality of education and the available faculty, documentation, facilities and space.

Chair

A chair is a unit of a faculty, a department, an affiliate, or a college carrying out instructional and research (artistic and creative) activities in a single or in a group of cognate subjects. A chair involves minimum seven (7) faculty members working full-time in the respective higher school’s employ.

A chair’s governing bodies are the Chair’s Board and the Head of the Chair. The Chair’s Board shall comprise of all faculty members working full-time for the chair.

The Head of a Chair shall be a person habilitated in the chair’s respective subject or scope of subjects who shall be elected by secret ballot for a term of four (4) years by the Chair’s Board, the election being subject to approval by the Board of the affiliate and/or the self-contained college. The position shall be occupied under a full-time contract of employment with the Rector of the respective higher school.

The Head of a Chair in a clinical subject or scope of subjects at higher medical schools shall manage and supervise the academic and research activities and coordinate the treatment and diagnostics offered by the respective clinic at the university hospital.

The requirement under Paragraph (1) concerning the number of faculty members shall not apply to faculties (schools) offering instruction in “Art” as a sphere of higher education.

Key competencies

The set of basic knowledge, skills, aptitudes and attitudes supporting the professional and social realisation and integration. In the EU countries the following eight key competencies are defined: communication in the mother tongue; communication in foreign languages; mathematical competence and basic competencies in science and technology; digital competence; learning to learn; social and civic competencies; sense of initiative and entrepreneurship; and cultural awareness and expression.

Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA

The Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA) is a European reference framework comprising all qualifications in the system of higher education. It was adopted by the Ministers responsible for higher education in the participating countries of the Bologna process at the Bergen conference, which was held on 19-20 May 2005. In the Bergen Communiqué the countries from the European Higher Education Area are called upon to elaborate national qualifications frameworks compatible and coordinated with the QF-EHEA, by 2010.

 

College

A college is a higher school’s primary unit employing faculty members, holding at least a half of the classroom teaching and practical exercises in each specialty. Full-time habilitated persons shall give at least 50 percent of the lecture courses in each specialty.

A college’s governing bodies are its General Assembly, the College Board and its Director. All shall be elected for a term of four (4) years.

The Director must be a habilitated faculty member having academic rank in the respective branch of science.

A college’s structure, as well as its governing bodies’ constitution and functions shall be laid down in the respective higher school’s Rules of Operations (Rulebook).

A college provides training at the educational and qualification degree of a Bachelor according to Article 42 (1) item 1, letter á”of the Higher Education Act (Professional Bachelor in..).

Controlling Board

The Controlling Board shall be made up of a Chairperson, a Deputy Chairperson and members of whom one is a representative of the Student Council and the others are habilitated persons. The members of the Controlling Board may not be:

1. members of the higher school’s Academic Board;

2. Vice-Rectors, Assistant Rector, Deans or Directors of primary units and affiliates.

The Controlling Board shall:

1. examine the lawfulness of all elections for choosing the higher school’s and the governing bodies of its primary units and/or affiliates within one (1) month of election day and reports to the Academic Board on the findings of such reviews;

2. draw up viewpoints as to the higher school’s draft budget and its implementation and report them to the Academic Board and the General Assembly;

3. participate in probes under Article 58a hereof;

4. submit minimum once a year an account of its controlling activities to the General Assembly.

The Controlling Board shall operate on the basis of rule adopted by the higher school’s General Assembly.

Credit

Unit of learning outcome.

According to Article 44a of the Higher Education Act, credit points shall represent the grading of the obligations which students have to fulfill in a certain subject or module as part of the overall obligations required for the successful completion of an academic year or semester.

Credit points in each subject shall consist of the total number of lectures, practical exercises and seminars, self-preparation (at laboratories, libraries, through papers, homework, and others), examinations passed and other forms of grading as established by the higher school. Credit points may also be awarded for participation in practical courses or course or diploma papers, where these activities constitute elements of the curriculum.

The credit points under Paragraph (3) shall be awarded to students who have successfully completed the respective subject and/or module through an examination or another form of grading established pursuant to Article 44 (5) of the Higher Education Act.

Higher schools shall provide a system for gaining and transferring credit points for grading the knowledge and skills acquired by the students in the course of studies.

The Bulgarian credit transfer and accumulation system is based on 60 credit points per academic year or 30 credit points per semester, allocated by subjects and/or modules in accordance with the curriculum of the specialty and the educational and qualification degree, or another number of credit points compatible with this system.

The terms and conditions for the application of the system for gaining and transferring credit points shall be established in the ruled adopted by the Minister of Education and Science.

Institutional accreditation

 

The institutional accreditation shall:

1. be based on the assessment of the way in which the higher school pursues its mission and objectives in accordance with Article 17 of the Higher Education Act;

2. result from the assessment of the efficiency of the higher school in the supervision, assurance and upgrading of the quality of instruction in the spheres of higher education and professional areas it offers.

The assessment in the institutional accreditation is aimed at checking the efficiency of:

1. the internal system for assessment and assurance of the quality of education;

2. the procedures for approval, monitoring and renewal of curricula and programmes;

3. the procedures for undertaking action in connection with and arising out of the results of the programme accreditation and other external independent audits;

4. the overall management and control of the processes of grading at the higher school;

5. the management of the system of gaining and transferring credit points;

6. the management of the cooperation with other higher schools and organizations;

7. the maintenance, management and development of the facilities of the higher school;

8. research and creative activities of the faculty and the participation of students and doctoral candidates in them.

In the course of the accreditation under par. 1 and the assessment of the compliance with the requirements for the full-time faculty, a member of the faculty may participate in the accreditation of not more than two higher schools.

Licence

A licence shall give the right to carry out and certify vocational education for acquiring a professional qualification degree or for provision of information and vocational guidance. A licence shall be issued by the National Agency for Vocational Education and Training.

Master

Master’s educational and qualification degree for the acquisition of which the following shall be required:

a) at least 300 credits in accordance with the curriculum with a minimum length of studies of five years;

b) at least 120 credits after the acquisition of a bachelor’s educational and qualification degree under item 1, letter (a);

c) at least 60 credits after the acquisition of a bachelor’s educational and qualification degree under item 1, letter (b).

Instruction in any Masger’s degree course ends with a state examination or a defendence of a diploma thesis.

The educational and qualification degree of a master is placed on level 7 of the Bulgarian Qualifications Framework, which corresponds to level 7 of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning or to the second cycle of the Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area.

Scientific degrees

The scientific degrees are:

1.      educational and scientific degree of a Doctor;

2.      Doctor of Science.

The educational and scientific degree of a Doctor and the scientific degree of a Doctor of Science are awarded only by higher education institutions and research organizations, which have received an accreditation for training in doctoral programmes for acquisition of a Doctor’s degree according to the conditions and the procedures written in the Higher Education Act.

The educational and scientific degree of a Doctor and the scientific degree of a Doctor of Science are termless and are recognized on the entire territory of the Republic of Bulgaria.

The educational and scientific degree of a Doctor and the scientific degree of a Doctor of Science are certified by a diploma issued by the respective higher education or research institution using an unified template approved by the Minister of Education and Science. The diploma is issued in Bulgarian language. Diploma supplement in English language may be issued upon a request by the holder.

National Council for Student Affairs

A National Council for Student Affairs shall be established as an advisory body to the Minister of Education and Science. The members of the National Council for Student Affairs shall be appointed at an order of the Minister of Education and Science, including:

1. four representatives of the National Representation of Student Councils;

2. three representatives of national student organizations – not-for-profit legal entities working to the public benefit to protect the academic, social and cultural rights and interests of students and doctoral candidates.

National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency (NEAA)

A specialized government authority for evaluation, accreditation and control of the quality of the activities of higher schools and research organizations with regard to training specialists and raising their qualification, and also with regard to the development of science, culture and innovations. NEAA controls the ability of institutions, their main units and branches to provide high quality of education and scientific research by an internal system for evaluation and quality maintenance and regarding the performance of the recommendations given during the evaluation and accreditation. NEAA’s mission is to assist higher schools to maintain and improve the quality of the education they offer by upholding the high academic standards and traditions of higher education in Bulgaria.

NEAA’s Regulations set the main directions in the Agency’s activities, outlines the evaluation and accreditation procedures and plan the procedures for post-accreditation monitoring and control.

 

 1. способността на институцията и на нейните основни звена и филиали да осигуряват високо качество на образованието и научните изследвания чрез вътрешна система за оценяване и поддържане на качеството;

 2. изпълнението на дадените при оценяването и акредитацията препоръки;

 3. спазването на капацитета на висшето училище, на капацитета на професионалните направления и на специалностите от регулираните професии.

National Agency for Vocational Education and Training (NAVET)

Three-party public body to the Council of Ministers for licensing

activities in the system of vocational education and training (VET), for coordination of institutions concerned with vocational orientation, training and education, and since 2009 for control of the activities of licensed institutions in the vocational training system. NAVET is a legal entity funded by the national budget with a headquartier in Sofia. The NAVET performs its activities pursuant the VET Act and according to Rules of Operation approved by the Council of Ministers.

 

The National Agency for Vocational Education and Training shall:

 1. issue and withdraw licences for vocational training and vocational orientation;

 2. control the activities of licensed institutions in the vocational training system;

 3. develop and propose to the Minister of Education and Science:

 a) the List of professions for vocational education and training;

 b) the state educational requirements for acquiring qualification on professions;

 4. participate in developing the state educational requirements for the documents for the public education system and for the system of assessment in their part for vocational education and training;

 5. based on analysis of the activities of centres for vocational training and centres for information and vocational orientation, propose improvements to the vocational education and training system;

6. assign the carrying out and the implementation of scientific research in the sphere of vocational education, training and orientation;

 7. coordinate the activities on the drawing up of strategies for development and improvement of vocational education and training;

 8. contribute to the international acknowledgement of the documents for vocational education and vocational training;

 9. create and maintain a register of the centres for vocational training and of the centres for information and vocational orientation and of licences issued and withdrawn;

 10. determine indicators for the provision of the annual information referred to in Article 22, Paragraph 8 of the VET Act;

 11. develop and approve standard forms and models of licensing documents.

 

 

National qualifications system

"National qualifications system" means all aspects of a Member State's activity related to the recognition of learning and other mechanisms that link education and training to the labour market and civil society. This includes the development and implementation of institutional arrangements and processes relating to quality assurance, assessment and the award of qualifications. A national qualifications system may be composed of several subsystems and may include a national qualifications framework.

National qualifications framework

 

An instrument for the classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria for specified levels of learning achieved, which aims to integrate and coordinate national qualifications subsystems and improve the transparency, access, progression and quality of qualifications in relation to the labour market and civil society.

National qualifications framework of the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian Qualificiations Framework  - BQF)

The national qualifications framework of the Republic of Bulgaria is adopted by Council of Ministers’ Decision No 96 of 02.02.2012. It includes 9 levels, including a zero (preparatory) level, which covers the pre-school education system. The eight levels after that correspond to the eight levels of the European Qualifications Framework. The zero level does not correspond to any of the EQF levels. It is included in the Bulgarian Qualificiations Framework (BQF) for completeness aimed to comprise the entire education and training system into the BQFand all the qualifications existing according to the Bulgarian legislation in education.

All levels of the NQF of Bulgaria apply the learning outcomes based approach and are described in:

1.         Knowledge – theoretical and/or factual;

2.         Skills  − cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments);

3.         Competences – personal and professional. The competences are described in terms of responsibility and autonomy and are set in four main groups:

ü  responsibility and autonomy;

ü  learning competences;

ü  communicative and social competences;

ü  professional competences.

The knowledge, skills and competences, which are defined in the Bulgarian Qualifications Framework are based on the State Educational Requirements within the national school and higher education system and correspond to the expected learning outcomes that are defined in those SERs in terms of knowledge, skills and competences.

The adoption of the National Qualifications Framework of the Republic of Bulgaria puts the Bulgarian educational and training system in a stage of comparability with the educational and training systems of the other EU Member States. In particular, this is a prerequisite for better mulual recognition of qualifications between the countries.

The National Qualifications Framework of the Republic of Bulgaria improves the transparency and the understanding both of the Bulgarian educational and training system, and of any particular qualification that is awarded there. It facilitates not only the recognition of diplomas, certificates and other documents for qualifications awarded abroad, but also the access to the labour market and the validation and recognition of prior learning, including non-formal and informal learning, and work-placed training.

National Representation of Student Councils.

The national body vested with expressing the common interests of all students and doctoral candidates.

Non-formal learning

Learning which is embedded in planned activities inside and outside formal education institutions. It could include adult literacy programmes, social skills, work skills, common knowledge, etc. Non-formal learning is intentional from the learner’s point of view. It could lead to validation and certification.

Education

Institutionalised process of teaching and acquiring general, special professional knowledge and skills developing the intellectual abilities of the individual. This process usually leads to acquiring an education degree or a vocational/professional qualification.

Education franchise

’’Education franchise’’ is a combination of rights of intellectual ownership of trade-marks, company logos, models, designs, copyright, know-how or patents over training programs for students, given by one higher school (franchising giver) to another higher school (franchising receiver) against payment, in order to be used for the training of highly qualified experts above secondary education that are able to apply and develop scientific knowledge in different spheres of the human activities, for improvement of specialists’ qualification and for the development of the science, culture and innovation activities.

Educational service

In view of Article 44 92) of the Public Education Act, educational service is training and upbringing of children and stduents outside the educational process, including in subjects studied at school, without acquiring a degree of education or a vocational qualification. 

Auxiliary units within the public education system

Auxiliary units within the public education system are:

1. scientific and informational;

2. extramural pedagogical institutions;

3. for international programme management;

4. for organised leisure, recreation and sports;

5. for operational management and funding of the public education system.

All auxiliary units shall organise and perform their activities in accordance with Rules and Regulations approved by the Minister of Education and Science

Auxiliary units of a higher school

Auxiliary units are all sections, centres, libraries, laboratories, experimental stations, printing and publishing facilities, production units and other self-contained units. The constitution and the functions of auxiliary units’ governing bodies shall be laid down in higher schools’ Rules of Operations (Rulebooks).

General education

General education shall be determined by the purpose of the Bulgarian school to ensure to all Bulgarian citizens an opportunity to develop themselves. General education shall be built on the principles of respecting:

1. the basic human rights;

2. children`s rights;

3. the traditions of Bulgarian culture and education;

4. the achievements of world culture;

5. the values of civil society;

6. the freedom of consciousness and the freedom of thought.

The basic objectives of general education shall be:

1.    to facilitate the physical and spiritual development of students, their successful orientation, adaptation and realisation in society;

2.    to create conditions for the formation of value orientations connected with the feeling of Bulgarian national identity, respect to others, compassion and civil responsibility;

3.    to create conditions for development of needs, interests and intentions for life-long study, education and self-improvement.

General education in the Bulgarian school shall be realised by studying subjects grouped in the following cultural and education fields:

1. Bulgarian language and culture;

2. foreign languages;

3. mathematics, informatics and information technologies;

4. social sciences, civil education and religion;

5. natural sciences and ecology;

6. arts;

7. household and technologies;

8. physical culture and sports.

Training

Process of teaching and acquiring knowledge and skills for a specific professional, social and personal sphere, which takes place both in and out of education institutions. It can lead to validation and certification.

Adult training

Process of training in conformity with the specifics of adults as learners. It includes the set of activities used by teachers, trainers and other specialists aimed to support adults to learn on individual basis, in a group and under the framework of education and training institutions. 

Common mandatory vocational training

The general mandatory vocational training is unified for all professional fielda, taking into account their specifics. It shall include theoretical training and practical training - educational practice.

General education minimum

The general education minimum shall be the basis of general education. It shall include obligatory knowledge and skills necessary for the successful realisation of students in the next level of education.

The general education minimum for the elementary and primary stages of primary education shall be uniform and obligatory for all schools.

The distribution of school time among the subjects with a view to achieving the general education minimum for each grade, stage and level are determined with an ordinance issued by the Minister of Education and Science.

The conditions and the procedure for including new elements in the curricula and programmes and for the schooling based on them, as well as for their updating, are determined with an ordinance issued by the Minister of Education and Science.

The content of the general education minimum determined pursuant to Article 13 may be updated every 4 years.

Literacy training

Education for acquiring reading, writing, mathematics knowledge and skills as well as elementary knowledge in the field of the humanities and sciences.

Governing bodies of higher schools

The governing bodies of higher schools are the General Assembly, the Academic Board and the Rector. The governing bodies of higher schools shall be elected for a four-year term.

Basic education

Basic education is acquired after lower secondary education completed, which corresponds to level 2 of the Bulgarian Qualifications Framework and the European Qualifications Framework and is certified by a certificate. Bacis education graduates have the right to continue their education in the next education stage or practice professions with requirement for bacis education completed.

Primary units of a higher school

Primary units are all faculties (schools), departments, institutes and colleges.

Branch mandatory vocational training  

The branch mandatory vocational training shall be unified for all professions of the professional field taking into account the specifics of each profession. It includes theoretical training and practical training - educational practice.

Paedagogical Council

A school's Paedagogical Council shall be a specialised body tasked with discussing and solving essential educational issues. The composition and functions of the paedagogical councils shall be determined by the Rules for the implementation of the Public Education Act and each school's Code of Practice.

Assistant Rector

The Assistant Rector shall assist the Rector with regard to matters related to the administrative and financial management, as well as the management of the property of the higher school

Recognition

A general term for validation and certification of knowledge, skills and competencies.

Programme accreditation

The programme accreditation shall be based on the assessment of the quality of the instruction offered in a specific professional area at a primary unit and/or affiliate of the higher school, of a specialty related to regulated professions, or a doctor's program.

Within the framework of the professional area, the assessment shall be aimed at checking the quality of instruction of students in all forms of studies in the educational and qualification degrees and in the doctoral educational and scientific degree.

Subject to programme accreditation shall be:

1. the structure, organization and content of curricula and programmes;

2. the profile and qualifications of the faculty;

3. the available facilities for the purposes of education;

4. teaching and grading methods;

5. the quality control of education;

6. research and creative activities of the faculty and the participation of students and doctoral candidates in them.

Vocational secondary schools

Vocational secondary schools shall carry out vocational education for acquiring second degree of professional qualification, with a duration of four years, or third degree of professional qualification with a duration of four or five years. They shall admit students with completed primary education or 7th grade. Vocational secondary schools may also carry out vocational training for acquiring first, second and third degree of professional qualification and qualification on part of the profession. Vocational secondary schools may also carry out vocational education for acquiring fourth degree of professional qualification based on an order issued by the Minister of Education and Science, provided that they meet the requirements determined by the state educational requirements.

Vocational secondary schools may organise the training of persons aged 16 years or over according to the programmes referred to Article 12 of the Public Education Act.

Vocational education

Vocational education shall ensure the acquisition of the general educational minima as, well as the attainment of professional qualifications in a certain vocation in accordance with the state educational requirements.

Vocational training

Vocational training shall ensure the acquisition of qualification for a profession or part of a profession, as well as its improvement. Under conditions determined by this Act, by the Public Education Act and the Level of Education, General Education Minimum and Curriculum Act, it shall also ensure the completion of primary education or of secondary education grades. Vocational training shall include:

 1. initial vocational training - acquisition of initial qualification for a profession or part of a profession;

 2. continuous vocational training - improvement of the acquired qualification for a profession or part of a profession.

Vocational education shall ensure the acquisition of the general education minimum for secondary education and the acquisition of qualification for a profession.

Vocational guidance, vocational training and vocational training shall be carried out for professions and specialities included in the List of Professions for Vocational Education and Training

Vocational guidance

Vocational guidance provides information, counselling and advice to students and other persons with regard to the choice of  profession and career development.

Vocational colleges

Vocational colleges shall carry out vocational training for acquiring fourth degree of professional qualification with a duration of up to two years depending on the acquired professional qualification degree. They shall admit persons with completed secondary education.

Professional

competencies

Ability to acquire knowledge, know-how and skills related to acquisition of a specific profession.

Vocational schools

Vocational schools shall carry out initial vocational training leading to acquisition of first and second degree of professional qualification and qualification on part of a profession with a duration of four years. They shall admit students with a completed 6th grade at the least. Vocational schools may also carry out vocational education based on an order issued by the Minister of Education and Science, provided that they meet the conditions determined by the state educational requirements.

 Vocational schools may organise the training of persons aged 16 years or over according to the programmes referred to Article 12 of the Public Education Act.

Professor

Academis position. The eligible applicants for occupying the academic position of a Professor should:

 1. be holders of the educational and scientific degree of a Doctor;

 2. have occupied the academic position of an Associate Professor in the same or in another higher education institution at least for two academic years or not less than 5 years:

 a) being teachers, including on not permanent contract or research team members in the same or in another higher education institution or research organization or

 б) have been practicing artictic-creative activity or

 в) have been specialists in practice and to have proved achievements in their field;

 3. have submitted a published monography or publications ofequal value published in specialized research magazines or proofs for respective artistic-creative achievements in the field of Art, which should not replicate those submitted for awarding Doctor’s educational and scientific degree, Doctor of Science’s scientific degree and for occupying the academic position of an Associate Professor.

 4. have submitted other original research papers, inventions and other research, applied research and artictic-creative achievements, which can be assessed as an aggregation.

If the applicants have not occupied the academic position of an Associate Professor before, then they should submit one more monography published or publications of equal value in specialized research magazines or respective proofs for artistic-creative achievements in the field of Art, which should not replicate those submitted for awarding of a Doctor of Science.

The academic position of a Professor should be occupied on a competitive basis. Such a competition is opened if the higher education or research institution can ensure the respective teaching and research workload according to its Rules of Operation.

Framework programmes for acquisition of a vocational qualification within the VET system

Framework programmes for acquisition of a vocational qualification within the VET system are approved by the Minister of Education and Science. They determine the age and the input educational and qualification level, as well as the contents and the duration of VET. The framework porgrammes are:

1.      Framework programmes „A” for initial vocational training for acquisition of I degree of vocational qualification;

2.      Framework programmes „B” for vocational training for acquisition of II degree of vocational qualification;

3.      Framework programmes „C” for vocational education for acquisition of II or III degree of vocational qualification;

4.      Framework programmes „D” for vocational training for acquisition of IV degree of vocational qualification;

5.      Framework programmes „E” for initial vocational training for acquisition of qualification in a part of profession;

6.      Framework Programme „F” for further vocational training for up-to-dating or extension of already acquired vocational qualification, as well as for acquisition of I, II, and III degree of a vocational qualification (since 2004).

The framework programmes for acquisition of a vocational qualification, which are regulated by the VET Act, are applicable both for initial VET (iVET) and continuing VET (cVET). They define the framework of training by provision with regards to the conditions for access to VET and the degrees of a vocational qualification (I-IV degree) and for a partial qualification, updating or improving already acquired vocational qualification.

Regulated profession

An activity or activities, appearing on the List of Regulated Professions in the Republic of Bulgaria, which is of importance to society and/or of significant importance to the life and health of the people, and the right to pursue which is stipulated by the provisions of the primary or secondary legislation on the holding of specific qualifications attested to by documents of education and legal capacity or on the membership of a professional organization working for the maintenance of high level in the respective professional area specially recognized by the state.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge, skills and competences acquired as a result of formal education, non-formal and informal learning.

Rector

The Rector shall:

1. represent the higher school;

2. be by right a member of the Academic Board and its Chairperson;

3. conclude and terminate employment contracts;

4. render final decisions on any matters regarding the admission, dismissal or transfer of students, doctoral candidates and trainees engaged in specialized studies;

5. draw up and submit to the Academic Board for consideration and approval the higher school’s annual report with the financial and physical indicators, as well as the results of the operation of the internal quality assessment and assurance system; the reports and the annual report with the financial and physical indicators of the higher school shall be published within three months of their adoption;

6. put forth the candidacies of habilitated faculty members to the Academic Board to elect one or more Vice Rectors;

7. appoint and dismiss an Assistant Rector who may be from outside the faculty of the higher school;

8. may convene, if need be, the governing bodies of the higher school’s primary units and affiliates;

9. appoint acting executives to filling vacant elective positions for a period of up to three months;

10. perform other functions arising out of the laws and the resolutions of the Academic Board or of the General Assembly.

Upon the expiration of the term under Article 24 (4) and in the cases under Article 31 (2) and (3), the Rector shall not represent the higher school and may not exercise the powers under Paragraph (1).

Self-contained college

Higher education institutions, which provide instruction for the bachelor’s educational and qualification degree as per Article 42 (1), item 1, letter “a” of the Higher Education Act, and meet the requirements under Paragraph (2), Items 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 of the Higher Education Act. The college shall have full-time faculty, holding at least a half of the classroom teaching and practical exercises in each specialty. Full-time habilitated persons shall give at least 50 percent of the lecture courses in each specialty.

Informal learning

Intentional learning, non-instutionalised, less organised or structured; can include learning activities resulting from daily work-related, family or leisure activities, self-, family- or society-directed. It could lead to validation and certification.

Optional education

Optional education shall ensure schooling in fields and curricular and extracurricular activities proposed by the school and chosen by the students which may be also outside of the cultural and education fields referred to in Article 10 of the Degree of Education, General Education Minimum and Syllabus Act. It shall be with duration of up to four classes weekly for all grades according to the curriculum and shall not be obligatory for the students.

Certification

The act of issuing a document certifying learning outcomes, which have been validated.

Credit transfer system

A system for measuring and comparing learning outcomes 9under the framework of a training course, training module and other forms) and their transferring from one education and training institution to another and their mutual recognition. The credit trasnefr system supports the transparency and comparability of qualifications and the education and training systems both in higher education and vocational education and training. Within the system, a certain value is assigned to each unit of learning outcome, which the learner is obliged to master successfully during the training process in order to pass the entire curriculum including passing examinations or other forms of assession of learning outcomes.

Postgraduated student

A learner who upgrades his/her qualification within the higher education system according to a specialized syllabus without awarding higher degree of education or acquiring a new specialty.

Specialized higher school

A specialized higher school conducts scientific research or artistic and creative activities and offers courses of training in one of the major areas of science, arts, physical culture, and military science while meeting the requirements set forth in Paragraph (2), Items 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Its appellation shall signify the specific area in which it trains specialists. Its name reflects the specific area in which the institutions provide educational programmes. Specialized higher school may provide educational programmes for acquisition of a Master’s educational and qualification degree and Doctor’s educational and scientific degree.

Specific vocational training obligatory for each profession

The specific vocational training obligatory for each profession shall include theoretical training and practical training - educational and practical training.

List of Professions for Vocational Education and Training

The List of Professions for Vocational Education and Training shall be approved by the Minister of Education and Science in coordination with the Minister of Labour and Social Policy, as well as with the respective branch ministers and with the representative organisations of employers and of employees on national level. The structural elements of the List shall be professions and specialties.

List of Regulated Professions in the Republic of Bulgaria

The List of Regulated Professions in the Republic of Bulgaria shall be adopted by a Decision of the Council of Ministers, based on a proposal made by the Minister of Education and Science after coordination with the Minister of Labour and Social Policy, as well as with the respective branch ministers and with the representative organisations of employers and of employees on national level.

The structural elements of the List shall be:

 1. the names of the professions which are regulated according to Bulgarian legislation;

 2. the statutory instrument which determines the requirements for practicing the profession;

 3. the authority which is competent to acknowledge the right to practice the respective regulated profession.

The Council of Ministers shall determine the terms and procedure for maintaining the List of Regulated Professions in the Republic of Bulgaria. The Council of Ministers’decision on adoption of the List of Regulated Professions in the Republic of Bulgaria shall be promulgated in the State Gazette.

The present List of Regulated Professions in the Republic of Bulgaria up to 31.10.2014 is adopted by Council of Ministers’Decision No 619 of 20.07.2009, amended and supplemented issue 30 of 17.04.2012, amended and supplemented issue 2 of 07.01.2014.

Sport schools

Institutions within the vocational and training system, which provide vocational education with a thirtd degree of a vocational qualification with duration of study in the field of sport up to 4 years after basic education completed.

Central school

Central school according to Article 26 (1) item 4 – item 6 of the Public Education Act is a school, which is situated in the nearest settlement on the territory of a municupality or neighbouring municipality where the students living in other settlements study because of a lack of a school in the settlement where they live.

The List of Central Schools is adopted by Council of Ministers’act upon a proposal made by the respective municipal councils. The criteria for including a school in the List of Central Schools are determined by the Council of Ministers’act for approval of the List. This List is updated on annual basis till 1st of October of the respective year and is published on the official web site of the Ministry of Education and Science in the Internet.

A Central school, which corresponds to the criteria for being a protected school, is included in the List of protected Schools according to Article 26 (2) of the Public Education Act.

Secondary education

Secondary education shall be acquired after successful completion of 12th grade and passing of two state matriculation examinations on subjects or series of subjects studied in secondary school, one of which in Bulgarian language and literature, and the other - at a choice of the student among the subjects Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, Biology and Health Education, Chemistry and Environmental Studies, History and Civilizations, Geography and Economics and the Philosophy series of subjects studied in the classes of the obligatory general education studies.

Degrees of education

The degrees of education shall ensure the necessary level of learning, as well as succession and continuity of education.

The levels of education shall be basic education and secondary education. The basic level shall consist of two stages:

1. primary - with a duration of four years (classes 1st through 4th);

2. basic - with a duration of four years (classes 5th through 8th);

The secondary level shall consist of one stage - secondary, with duration of four years (classes 9th through 12th).

Student in higher education

A learner whi studies for acquisition of a Bachelor’s, Professional Bachelor’s or Master’s educational and qualification degree.

Student Council

The Student Council is the body vested with defending the common interests of educates. It is made up of all students’ and doctoral candidates’ delegates to the higher school’s General Assembly. The term of office of students and doctoral candidates in the higher school’s Student Council shall be two years with an opportunity for re-election for one more term of office. The Student Council shall elect from among its members a Chairperson to organize and guide its activities and represent it before the managing bodies of the higher school and the primary and auxiliary units therein.

Board of Trustees

The Board of Trustees shall assist the higher school in the efficient and transparent management and in the provision of high-quality education and instruction.

The Board of Trustees shall consist of seven members who are donors to the higher school, personalities of active public stance, representatives of employers, professional, sectoral and trade union organizations, representatives of the Student Council and of the Minister of Education and Science.

The following may not be members of the Board of Trustees:

1. The President, the Vice President, Members of Parliament, Ministers, Deputy Ministers, Chairpersons of state agencies and their deputies, members of State Commissions, Executive Directors of executive agencies and their deputies, Regional Governors, Regional Vice Governors, Municipal Councilors, Mayors, Deputy Mayors, heads of government institutions established by law or by an act of the Council of Ministers who perform executive functions and their deputies;

2. Members of the leading bodies of political parties and trade union organizations;

3. Members of the faculty and the administrative staff of the higher school, except for the persons who occupied the position of a Rector of the higher school.

Five of the members of the Board of Trustees shall be elected by the Academic Board at the proposal of the Rector and the other two shall be nominated by the Minister of Education and Science and by the Student Council respectively.

The Board of Trustees shall elect its Chairperson from among its members.

The Board of Trustees shall give its opinion on:

1. key issues related to the development of the higher school;

2. the draft programme for the term of office;

3. the draft budget of the higher school;

4. the draft amendments to the rules of the higher school;

5. the draft proposals under Article 30 (1), items 4 and 12 concerning the number of students and doctoral candidates admitted for instruction and the amount of the application and tuition fees;

6. the annual report on the condition of the higher school, the annual report with the financial and physical indicators of the higher school, the annual financial report and the report on the execution of the budget revenues and expenditures;

7. proposals for the introduction of scholarships by the higher school.

The Board of Trustees shall hold meetings at least on a quarterly basis.

The Rectors’Conference

The authority vested with the right to assert the common interests of higher schools before the state and government authorities.

University

A university is a higher school which:

1. provides training in a wide range of subjects in professional areas within at least three of the four major branches of science humanities, natural sciences, social sciences and technical sciences;

2. employs full-time faculty required to conduct no less than half of all lecturing and practical sessions under the academic curriculum in each major, whereas the habilitated [2] faculty members deliver no less than seventy percent (70%) of all lecturing courses in each major;

3. holds adequate facilities to ensure that practical training is also conducted in compliance with the state standard requirements;

4. offers bachelor’s, master’s and doctor’s degrees in the respective major branches of science;

5. has ample scientific and artistic potential and through its activities contributes to the development of major branches of science and culture;

6. provides the faculty, the students and the doctoral candidates with adequate conditions for printing of scientific works, textbooks, monographs, as well as for the achievement of typical creative accomplishments;

7. owns a library and other means for information services to instruction and research;

8. maintains international contacts both in the provision of academic instruction and in its creative activities;

9. has an academic information centre for administrative services to students and doctoral candidates.

A higher school offering academic courses in one or two major branches of science or culture and meeting all requirements set forth in Paragraph (2), Items 2 through 9 above may be a university with its appellation signifying its specific nature.

Score from the diploma on a completed degree of higher education

The score calculated as the mean of the scored in the subjects included in the curriculum and the average score of the state examinations or the defence of the diploma thesis

Syllabus

The structure of the syllabus shall comprise three types of education: compulsory, mandatorily elective and

optional.

(2) Compulsory education shall ensure the achievement of the general education minimum.

The syllabus shall contain:

 1. the names of the subjects included in the compulsory, mandatorily elective and optional schooling and in the case of vocational training - the names of the training subjects or modules;;

 2. the distribution of the subjects in each grade and in the case of vocational training – the distribution of the training subjects and modules by grades;

 3. the annual and the weekly number of classes for studying the

subjects and in the case of vocational training, where instruction is provided in modules – the annual numbers of hours of the training modules studied;

 4. schedule of the school year;

 5. description of the organisation of schooling in the respective school.

Education process in the Bulgarian higher schools

The education process in the Bulgarian higher schools is conducted only in their basic units and branches, established in accordance with the procedure under Art.9, (2), pt.1 and (3), pt.3 or in the respective organizational structures, accredited in accordance with the legislation of the state, where the training is performed, in the cases in which the education process is conducted abroad by a foreign higher school by virtue of an agreement for joint educational activities or education franchise Higher-school tuition shall be conducted pursuant to tuition documentation for each specialty, comprising the qualification descriptions by degrees, the curriculum, the programmes of study in all subjects and courses offered and the annual tuition schedule.

Educational documentation within the higher education system

Comprising the qualification descriptions by degrees, the curriculum, the programmes of study in all subjects and courses offered and the annual tuition schedule.

Educational contents

The programme of study for each subject, which shall be organized in relatively discrete modules.  Each module must include minimum 15 academic hours of classroom instruction. An academic hour is 45 minutes long.

Learning

A cumulative process whereby individuals gradually assimilate increasingly complex and abstract entities (concepts, categories, and patterns of behaviour or models) and/or acquire skills and competencies.

Schools

Schools are educational and upbringing institutions within the public education system, which can be:

1.      primary (I-IV class);

2.      lower secondary (V-VIII class),

3.      secondary (I-VIII class),

4.      high schools (IХ-ХII class),

5.      specialized high schools (VIII/IХ-ХII class),

6.      vocational high schools (VIII/IХ-ХII class),

7.      secondary general education schools (I-ХII class),

8.      vocational schools (from VII/VIII class with length of training up to three years, from IХ class - with length of training up to four years),

9.      vocational colleges (after completion of upper secondary education with length of training up to two years),

10.  sports schools,

11.  art schools,

12.  special schools (for students with chronic diseases, with sensor disabilities, with language and speaking deficiencies, mentally challenged, having numerous disabilities, with behavioural deviations).

13.  culture schools

Art vocational schools

Institutions within the vocational and training system, which provide vocational education with a thirtd degree of a vocational qualification with duration of study up to 4 years after basic education completed.

School trusteeships

Trusteeships shall be independent voluntary associations to support the development of and provision of facilities to schools, kindergartens and auxiliary units according to Acticle 33а (1), item 2 of the Public Education Act.

School education

The school education shall provide for the education and upbringing of pupils in accordance with social needs and individual capabilities and expectations for successful self-fulfilment in civil society.  School education in terms of degree shall be basic and secondary, while in terms of the content of instruction it shall be general and vocational. Vocational education shall ensure the acquisition of the general educational minima as, well as the attainment of professional qualifications in a certain vocation in accordance with the state educational requirements.

 General education shall ensure the acquisition of the general educational minima and, where possible, specialised training in accordance with the state educational requirements.

 Vocational education shall ensure the attainment of vocational qualifications in a certain vocation in accordance with the state educational requirements.

Teacher/Trainer

A holder of a teaching certificate.

Faculty

A faculty is a higher school’s primary unit, which unites several chairs to provide training of students, doctoral candidates and trainees engaged in specialized studies in a single or in a group of professional areas in those spheres of science for which the higher school is accredited to conduct the training. The faculty shall employ forty (40) full-time faculty members of whom habilitated holders of academic rank give at least 70 percent of the lecture courses in each specialty.

A faculty’s governing bodies are the General Assembly, the Faculty (School) Board and the Dean. All shall be elected for a term of four (4) years. Their tenure shall not be discontinued when by-elections are conducted.

A faculty’s General Assembly shall be made up of all full-time faculty members, administrative staff delegates, and delegates of all students and doctoral candidates enrolled in the faculty (school). Faculty members shall account for minimum seventy percent (70%), while students’ and doctoral candidates’ delegates shall account for minimum fifteen percent (15%) of all listed General Assembly members.

Faculty Board

The Faculty Board shall be made up of at least 25 members and shall comprise representatives of all full-time faculty members, students and doctoral candidates. No less than three fourths of all Faculty Board members shall be habilitated persons having academic rank.

The Faculty Board:

1. elects by secret ballot a Deputy Dean on a motion of the Dean;

2. puts forth proposals to the Academic Board as to:

(a) projects to establish, transform or close chairs and auxiliary units operating under the faculty (school);

(b) draft curricula and qualification descriptions by degrees and specialties;

(c) announcement of competitions pursuant to Article 50 hereof;

3. elects and promotes in position (pay grade) the non-habilitated faculty members;

4. makes proposals to the higher school’s Rector for dismissals (i.e. cessation of employment) under Article 58 (2) hereof;

5. makes proposals to the faculty’s General Assembly and/or to the higher schools’ governing bodies regarding issues relative to the operations and the state of the faculty (school);

6. adopts the curricula in the various majors (specialties) offered by the faculty (school) and the individual programmes of study of students, doctoral candidates and trainees engaged in specialised studies;

7. annually approves and oversees the teaching workload of faculty members;

8. recommends scientific works, textbooks, monographs, and other creative achievements for printing in the higher school’s publishing facilities and sees to it that they are timely issued from the press;

9. (Amended, SG No. 48/2004) discusses and approves the results from the assessment of faculty members and, in the cases under Article 58 (1), Item 6, submits them to the Rector to render a decision;

10. discusses, makes recommendations and takes decisions regarding the operations of all faculty’s units;

11. sees to the state of the faculty’s library and information-service facilities and takes measures to ensure their improvement;

12. takes decisions regarding the faculty’s financial matters;

13. adopts the Annual Report on the instructional, research, artistic and creative activities carried out within the faculty (school);

14. takes various other decisions relating to the faculty’s operations.

Affiliate (subsidiary) of a higher education institution

An affiliate (subsidiary) is a territorially detached structure of the higher school established in regions missing the requisite university structure for the purpose of satisfying the need for a particular kind of training in certain professional areas. Training shall be given only in the areas for which the higher school has been accredited.

An affiliate shall be required to employ minimum ten (10) full-time faculty members, whereby habilitated persons at the higher school shall give at least 70 percent of the lecture courses in each specialty.

An affiliate’s composition, structure, and governing bodies shall be prescribed by the higher school’s Academic Board.

An affiliate shall be managed by a Director, who must be a habilitated faculty member. The Director shall be elected by the Academic Board for a term of four (4) years.

Forms of instruction within the public education system

The forms of instruction within the public education system shall be:

1. day schools;

2. evening schools;

3. extramural (extension) courses;

4. correspondence courses;

5. individual schooling;

6. self-training;

7. distance courses;

8. combined form;

9. learning by doing (dual training).

Formal learning

/training/ education

Learning that occurs in an organised and structured context (in a school/higher education institution/training centre) and is explicitly designated as learning (in terms of objectives, time or learning support). Formal learning is intentional from the learner’s point of view. It typically leads to officially recognised document (diploma, certificate).

Centres for information and vocational guidance

The centres for information and vocational guidance shall carry out vocational guidance of students and other persons.

Centres for qualification of training specialists

The Centres for qualification of training specialists shall be state or municipal servicing units from the public education system and shall be opened, transformed and closed down pursuant to the procedure stipulated by the Public Education Act. The Centres for qualification of training specialists shall carry out updating and broadening of the qualification of teachers and other persons carrying out vocational training.

Vocational training centres

Institutions within the vocational training system, which shall carry out vocational training of individuals aged 16 and over

Private kindergartens and schools

Private shall be all kindergartens and schools that are opened or transformed at the request of Bulgarian natural or legal entities and are not budgeted by the state.