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Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Belgium (German Speaking Community)

Contents

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of Technical Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teaching and Learning in Technical Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Assessment in Technical Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Legislation

Belgium-German-Speaking-Community:Glossary

The basic structure of full-time secondary education was determined in the foundational decree of 31 August 1998. According to this, all secondary schools in the GC cover three levels, each lasting two years:

  • Level 1: Observation level (1st and 2nd secondary school year; years 7 and 8)
  • Level 2: Orientation level (3rd and 4th secondary school year; years 9 and 10)
  • Level 3: Determination level (5th and 6th secondary school year; years 11 and 12)
  • The 1st level is considered the lower form; the 2nd and 3rd levels are considered the upper (sixth) form (another arrangement applies to questions regarding content, see below).

There are three streams of education in the secondary upper form:

  • general education,
  • technical education,
  • vocational education,

The 3rd level of vocational education can last three years. It is possible to obtain a fully-valid secondary school leaving facilitating entrance to a university by completing this optional 7th secondary school year. This leaving certificate is not issued in the 6th year in vocational education as in other streams.

A change from one field of study to another is possible at certain times and under certain circumstances.

Early secondary school graduation in the lower form (the first three years) and the upper form (the last three and/or four years) is irrelevant for the school structure today; however, it is still (up to the planned important amendments to certain previous versions of statutory regulations) important in other areas (e.g. determining teaching qualifications, questions about salary). The leaving certificate for the lower form of secondary education is also provisionally issued after successfully completing the 3rd general education and/or 4th vocational year.

Part-time education in the school environment is only offered in the two secondary schools that mainly provide studies in technical and vocational education. Secondary school pupils do not need to switch schools, unless they would like to find a course that is not offered in their current secondary school (elective course combination or certain specialised departments in technical or vocational education).

In addition to the Royal decree of 29 June 1984 on the organisation of secondary education, the decree of 5 June 1990 on the determination of the number of class hours/instructors in full-time education is of great importance for full-time secondary education. This decree determines how the number of lessons (lesson capital) of a secondary school is calculated based on the number of pupils. This calculation enables schools to organise their courses, to calculate the number of teaching positions required and to hire the teaching staff. This means that each school pupil is provided with a specific coefficient that is dependent on the level and stream of education, and that the formula the number of pupils x coefficient divided by a corresponding administration divisor results in the number of full-time positions that a school is entitled to during a specific school year. The administration divisor is different depending on the school level (lower form: 22 and upper form: 20) and equates to the number of class hours that a teacher must teach for general subjects in order to have a full timetable.

The educational objective of all secondary schools is develop the student's skills. The schools' mission is to make it possible for all pupils to acquire as many skills as they can, and to use these for the development of core competences and competence expectations.

First Level (Observation level)

The first level, also called the observation level, includes both of the first years of secondary school and specifically follows the objective of guaranteeing all pupils a comprehensive basic education. In this level, teachers can observe pupils in order to discover and encourage special talents. The observation level should lead to the best-possible pupil orientation in the second level, the orientation level. Since some pupils, however, display specific deficits in certain areas at the beginning, it is necessary to put them into a separate first level so as to be able to support them in a better and more targeted manner. After this, a distinction is made in the first level, firstly between the 1st A year and the 2nd common year and secondly, the separate 1st level with the 1st B year (also called the assimilation class) and the 2nd B year.

The 1st A Year and the 2nd Common Year

The main objective in this level is to help all pupils to effectively achieve the skills required within the two years of this level, which are described in the decree of 16 June 2008, and for all schools in the GC to fulfil the obligatory minimum requirements.

An additional educational objective for the first level is - in addition to developing competences - to strive for metadisciplinary skills. article 13 of the foundational decree adds to this, among others: "During education and training, being responsible for one's own education and independent learning and motivational support are important requirements that make life-long learning possible."

Separate Level 1: The 1st B Year and the 2nd B Year

1st B year (also called assimilation class) and 2nd B year pupils normally have the greatest deficit in the general mastery of basic knowledge; they often come from a socially disadvantaged environment and have often had a negative, oppressive experience during their primary school education. The objective is, therefore, to develop a separate first level from both of these classes. Here, another type of pedagogy becomes important, which helps the pupil to reconcile with the school so they can finally experience success again, improve their basic knowledge of reading, writing, speaking and arithmetic, develop team spirit and build up their levels of motivation to deal with interesting tasks which demand effort and hard work.

Through this separate work, the requirements necessary for entry into a technical or vocational course should be met after two years.

Second Level (orientation level) + Third Level (determination level)

After completing the first level (the start of the 3rd year at secondary school) the pupil decides themselves (as long as the level report from the first level and the associated orientation certificate do not exclude specific options) which field of study they want to follow in one of the three streams of education: general education, technical education or occupational education.

All three streams include the second level (orientation level) in the 3rd and 4th school years, and the third level (determination level) in the 5th and 6th years. In vocational education, a 7th year can be added to the third level; here the student can gain certification which allows access to university education.

The various fields of study of the three streams are formally differentiated by their actual objectives through other criteria.

As a result, there are two education paths: transitional education and qualification education.

  • Transitional education includes all the fields of study from the general education stream and a few fields of study form the technical stream.
  • Qualification education includes most fields of study from the technical stream and all fields of study from the vocational stream.

Transitional education fields of study mainly aim to prepare youths for university; however, there is also the option of entering into an active career with a lower level secondary school leaving certificate (due to the foundational decree of 31 August 1998, which is soon to be that will be abolished) or with a upper level secondary school leaving certificate. The fields of study or distribution of qualification education first aims to facilitate entrance into an active career by awarding a qualifications certificate after a four-year education, but still allows the option of going on to study at university (in vocational education only after the 7th year has been successfully completed).