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Belgium-French-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

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Overview Belgium (French Community)

Contents

Belgium-French-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-French-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-French-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-French-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-French-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-French-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-French-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-French-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-French-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-French-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-French-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-French-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-French-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-French-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-French-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-French-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-French-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-French-Community:Legislation

Belgium-French-Community:Glossary

Types of Institutions

Higher education is provided in universities (with which the architecture colleges were integrated in 2010-2011), hautes écoles, arts colleges and social advancement education (http://www.gallilex.cfwb.be/document/pdf/16184_006.pdf).

Each type of higher education institution has its own purposes which determine different teaching structures and methods.

Universities, “hautes écoles” and higher institutions of arts are part of the so-called full-time education.

Social advancement education (teaching for adults) is part of the dynamics of education and lifelong learning in the French Community and offers adults a wide range of programs and training at the secondary and higher education level. Finally, it is a modular education through which learning activities are organized by training units, which are capitalized to lead to the award of a diploma via a so-called integrated examination. Social advancement education institutions empowered to organize higher education programs and to issue higher education diplomas are listed in Article 13 and Annex VI of the Decree of 7 November 2013 defining the landscape of higher education and the academic organization of studies.

Higher Education consists of short-type programmes (180 ECTS, sometimes 240 ECTS) and long-type programmes (60 or 120 ECTS - sometimes 180 ECTS - after obtaining the grade of bachelor of transition). Both types are found in the hautes écoles, arts colleges, and social advancement education, whereas the universities only offer long-type programmes. Long-type education has the character and level of university education.

An important reorganisation of the higher education landscape has been voted by the government on 7 November 2013. All the higher education institutions will be gathered under one "Academy of Research and Higher Education" (Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur – ARES) with the aim of simplifying administration and of researching consistency of the whole system. The institutions will organise themselves in five academic clusters.

Apart from these structural aspects, the reform focuses on organisation of the curriculum. The guiding thread of the project  is the student, his status, the promotion of academic success, the diversity of provision (including proximity for first cycles), and quality of the curriculum. The new curricula will follow a logic of academic success promotion with and individualised management of each student's years of study according to his achievements.

This new organisation was implemented in September 2014.

Study programs

There are 26 fields of higher education : Philosophy, Theology, Languages, Letters and Translatology, History, History of Art and Archeology, Information and Communication, Political and Social Sciences, Legal Sciences, Criminology, Economics and Management, Psychological Sciences and Siences in Education, Medical Sciences, Veterinary Sciences, Dentistry, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health Sciences, Motricity Sciences, Sciences, Agronomy and Biological Engineering, Engineering Sciences and Technology, Art of Building and Urban planning, Art and Art Sciences, Plastic, Visual and Space Arts, Music, Theater and Performing Arts, Performing Arts and Broadcasting and Communication Technology, Dance.

These fields are divided into 4 sectors: "human sciences", "health", "sciences and techniques" and "art".

Specific Missions

The primary mission of university education is to maintain, disseminate, and advance science. Education and research are closely linked. Universities are also vested with a cultural and critical function, and increasingly seek to promote the practical side of education by means of links between fundamental and applied research, links with companies, and so on.

In the hautes écoles, short-type higher education consists of a programme of study that provides technical training with a view to the acquisition of a professional qualification in a specific domain. Long-type (university-level) higher education seeks abstraction beyond the concrete aspect of things and provides scientific and technological training geared more directly towards practical applications. It trains highly qualified technical management staff for transposition and development tasks and short-term applied research.

Short-type or long-type higher education is also provided in the four sectors.

Higher education in the arts, dispensed in the arts colleges, is defined as a setting for multidisciplinary research and creation, in which the fine arts, visual arts and spatial arts and their teaching are explored in an inseparably linked manner. The purpose of short-type education in the arts colleges is the practice of an artistic profession. Through artistic instruction and knowledge of cultural research, the aim is to produce professionals in their crafts, autonomous specialists who are able to take their future in hand, in particular through research focusing on the professional use of the arts. Long-type education offers in-depth and versatile training on a broad optional basis, fed by interdisciplinary experimentation and research. The studies organised by the arts colleges only falls within the "Art" sector.

Social advancement education, including social advancement in higher education, has two purposes. It contributes to individual fulfillment by promoting a better professional, social, educational and cultural integration (development of people) and it responds to the needs and requests for training coming from companies, administrations, education and in general from the socio-economic and cultural backgrounds (needs of society).

Public and Private Education

Each higher education institution belongs to a network which may be either state-run (institutions run by the French Community or other public bodies) or free (institutions run by a confessional or non-confessional private institution), subsidied by the French Community.