This page was last modified on 1 August 2012, at 16:26.

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Belgium (French Community)

Contents

Belgium-French-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-French-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-French-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-French-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-French-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-French-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-French-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-French-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-French-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-French-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-French-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-French-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-French-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-French-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-French-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-French-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-French-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-French-Community:Legislation

Belgium-French-Community:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects and Numbers of Classes

The transition stream (general and technological humanities) provides a humanist education, from the point of view of the general objectives of education: the prime goal of the transition streams is to prepare pupils for higher education, whilst maintaining the possibility of entering the labour market.

There are three forms of transition-stream education: general, technical, and artistic; and two stages: (second or orientation stage and third or determination stage).

The competencies and skills required upon completion of a general and technological humanities course have been defined: final achievement targets and common-core knowledge required of all pupils, final achievement targets and common-core knowledge required in the different subjects, and minimum communication competencies in a modern language other than French.

The final achievement targets are defined as ‘a reference guide, which, in a structured manner, presents the competencies that are expected to be attained at a given level at the end of secondary education’ and subject-related competencies are defined as ‘a reference guide, which, in a structured manner, presents the competencies to be attained in a subject’. These general objectives are identical for all schools. The reference guides serve as learning guides and assessment safeguards. For all schools, they represent the entire reference set which determines the study level and around which curricula are structured: the curricula, meanwhile, for which the controlling authorities are responsible, stipulate the resources to be deployed. The reference guides relate to virtually all subjects and disciplines: French, mathematics, Latin and Greek, modern languages, history and geography, economics, social sciences, physical education, and science.

The Second or Orientation Stage

In the second stage, the education which is common to all pupils in the first stage is reduced in scope, while the optional element (single or grouped core options and optional activities) is extended.
In transition-stream secondary education, weekly schedules harmonised for all educational networks ensure greater versatility in the second stage, thereby enabling pupils to make considered choices. General courses are still well represented.

In general secondary education there are no grouped options, but a range of single core options (modern language II, Latin, physical education, etc. – generally at the rate of four lessons per week) and optional activities (artistic education, introduction to information technology, activities relating to the institution’s specific educational plan, etc. – generally at the rate of one or two lessons per week).

In the technical and artistic forms, various grouped core options (7 to 11 periods per week) are also offered: agricultural science; industrial science (electromechanics); computer electronics; industrial science (construction and public works); audiovisual; arts; graphic arts; applied economics; social and educational science; paramedical science; applied science; physical education; sports-studies; biotechnics; artistic humanities (music, dance or theatre and vocal arts) in the technical form, arts and sciences and dance in the artistic form..

Weekly Timetable for the 3rd and 4th Years of Transition-stream Education in 2010-2011, in Periods of 50 Minutes

I Core curriculum
 

 
Public and private grant-aided non-denominational schools
Private grant-aided denominational schools
 
Religion/ethics
2
2
French
5
5
History and geography
3
4
Mathematics
5
5
Mathematics (transition-stream art education)
4 or 5
 
Sciences
3 or 5
3 or 5
Science education (transition-stream art and technical education)
2
2
Modern language I
4
4
Physical education
2 or 3
2



II Free options
At least one option from among the following core options (a timetable that does not include a core option may be authorised under certain conditions in cases where the pupil takes 5 science periods per week):

  • single core options: Modern language II (4 periods), Economics (4), Social sciences (4), Latin (4), Greek (4 or 2), Physical education (4), Artistic education or artistic education: expressive arts (4), Technical and technological education (4)..
  • grouped core options in transition-stream technical education (7 to 11 periods): agronomic science, computer electronics, graphic arts, sports studies, artistic humanities, etc. (16 possibilities)..
  • grouped core options in transition-stream artistic education (7 to 11 periods) : arts and sciences or dance.


III Optional activities
Artistic education (2 périods), French reinforcement (1 or 2), Mathematical activities (1 or 2), Complementary communication and expression activities (2), Technological education (2), Introduction to ancient culture (2), Introduction to Greek culture (2), Reinforcement of laboratory practice (1 or 2), Physical geography (1 or 2), Monitored exercises in applied economics (1 or 2), Word processing or typing (1 or 2), Introduction to computers (1 or 2), Physical education: sports (1, 2, or 3), Activities related to the school’s special projects (1, 2, or 3).

A maximum of 2 hours of individualised remediation can be added to the weekly timetable.

The second foreign language studied as an option may be Dutch, English, German, Italian, Spanish or Arabic.

The Third or Determination Stage

When entering the third stage, pupils choose from the study orientations on offer. The common core curriculum shared by all students in the transition stream (religion/ethics, French, history, geography, and physical education, as well as at least one modern language course, a mathematics course, and a science course – the last two for a variable number of lessons per week) is again reduced in favour of optional courses which make up the study orientation.

In the third stage of general education, two possibilities are offered:
• courses of study with integrated majors and several possible orientations: major in modern languages, major in science, major in classics, major in economics, major in social sciences, major in arts, major in physical education.
• courses of study with combinations of options: schools may combine elements of the different aforementioned orientations, with the obligation to include certain courses. In education organised by the French Community, the organisation of a course of study by combining options is subject to authorisation and has to match the particular situation of a pupil.

In the third stage of transition-stream technical education, a choice of the following grouped options is offered: agricultural science, industrial science: electromechanics, computer electronics, industrial science: construction and public works, audiovisual, arts, graphic arts, applied economics, social and educational sciences, applied sciences, science–information technology, industrial chemistry, paramedical science, physical education, sports–studies, biotechnology applied sciences, information science, industrial chemistry..

In third stage of transition-stream artistic education, a choice is offered between the following grouped options; arts and sciences and dance.

The two years of the third transition stage must be followed in the same study orientation and with the same timetable. A reorientation year is possible in the fourth year.

The following table describes one of the possible orientations within the framework of general study programmes with integrated majors. The weekly timetables of transition-stream technical and artistic education include, in addition to the common core, compulsory modern languages and compulsory options, free options (optional learning and/or activities) for a total minimum of 28 periods and maximum of 34 periods (36 for some pupils).

Weekly Timetable for the 5th and 6th Years of General Education in 2010-2011, in Periods of 50 Minutes, for the Orientation with an Integrated Major in Modern Languages
 

 
Public schools and private grant-aided non-denominational schools
 
Private grant-aided denominational schools
 
I. Common core for all integrated majors
Religion/ethics
2
2
French
5
4
History and geography
3
4
Physical education
3 or 2
2
II. Compulsory modern language
Modern language I
4
4
Modern language II
4
4
Modern language III
4
4
III. Compulsory option
Mathematics
6, 4, or 2
6, 4, or 2
Sciences
6 or 3
6 or 3 (+1)
IV. Free options (freely chosen options and/or activities of choice – subject to not exceeding the maximum)
Another single core option apart from modern languages (e.g. mathematics, physics, social science,...)
4
4
One or more free options (e.g. introduction to ancient culture, word processing, ...)
 
 
Physics activity (education organised by the French Community in the case of 6-period science course
1
 


Other programmes are known as ‘combined options’. Schools are allowed to combine elements from different orientations provided that the following principles are observed:

  • All schedules must include a common core course (in religion/ethics, French, history and geography, and physical education).
  • All schedules must include a course in modern language (4 periods), a mathematics course, and a science, plus two other single core options.

In schools organised by the French Community, a weekly schedule consisting of a combination of options is subject to the approval of the General Department of Compulsory Education and can only be approved to meet the specific needs of a pupil.

A maximum of 2 hours of individualised remediation can be added to the weekly timetable.

Teaching Methods and Materials

The choice of teaching methods rests with the respective controlling authority.

Use of textbooks is not very widespread, particularly for scientific disciplines and mathematics. The decision to use a textbook or not, and which one, is left to the teachers. Under the terms of a decree introduced on 19 May 2006, financial support is granted to pre-secondary and secondary schools for the purchase of approved textbooks or collections of textbooks and software by the Steering Committee on the basis of formal opinions issued by the competent inspection services according to the criteria defined by the legislators (primarily equality, non-discrimination and conformity with official achievement targets).

In the late 1990s, every secondary school was equipped with a multimedia centre, and thanks to agreements between the French Community, the Walloon Region, the federal government, and the access provider, every school was able to have access to the Internet under very favourable terms. On the basis of a new agreement between the French Community and the regions, a new school equipment plan is in progress in 2010-2011.

Each network has its own media education resource centre. A Media Education Council was created in 1995.

Responsible citizenship and development education have been the subject of several initiatives. An inter-network unit, ‘Democracy or Barbarism’ co-ordinates citizenship education issues. A working and reflection group on development education in the school environment tracks projects dealing with this theme in schools. Under the terms of a decree adopted in 2007, a document entitled ‘Being and becoming a citizen’  has been created and distributed. This is intended to provide references for understanding civil society and political life, and is directed towards pupils in the 5th and 6th years of secondary education. This same decree imposes the organisation of interdisciplinary activities for a responsible and active citizenship at least once during each cycle or stage and the set up of participative structures for pupils (election of class representatives by their peers, councils of pupils representing specific cycles or stages). On 13 March 2009, the Government of the French Community passed a decree on the remembrance, particularly with respect to young people, of genocide crimes, crimes against humanity, war crimes and acts of resistance or resistance movements against the regimes responsible for such crimes.

The education departments that are either part of the French Community or the different controlling authorities that administer grant-aided schools produce teaching aids that are designed to attain the knowledge and skills prescribed by the reference guides. These teaching aids can be used by all schools organised or grant-aided by the French Community.
Two education information servers have been set up: one common to the different school systems and the other specific to schools organised by the French Community. A database of educational reference material is available online.

Finally, part of the timetable in secondary education may be organised in a modern language other than French, in the form of immersion learning.