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Belgium-French-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

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Overview Belgium (French Community)

Contents

Belgium-French-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-French-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-French-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-French-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-French-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-French-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-French-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-French-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-French-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-French-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-French-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-French-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-French-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-French-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-French-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-French-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-French-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-French-Community:Legislation

Belgium-French-Community:Glossary

Definition of Target Group(s)

All pupils with special needs who are recognised as such by a Centre for Psychological, Medical and Social Services (CPMS) or another approved centre, are eligible for integration support, including in secondary dual vocational education and training.

The legislation uses the term ‘special needs pupils’ to refer to pupils attending the various types of specialised education: children and adolescents with slight mental retardation (not including pupils who are behind educationally, with moderate or severe mental retardation, with behavioural problems (structural and/or functional disturbances relating to relationships and emotional development), with physical disabilities (requiring regular medical and paramedical care), in a state of serious illness or convalescence, with visual or hearing impairments, or with learning disabilities (complex disturbances with multiple origins).

An integration proposal may be submitted by one of the following actors:

  • the class council of a specialised educational institution;
  • the organisation that provides guidance for pupils in the specialised education institution;
  • the organisation that provides guidance for pupils in the ordinary education institution;
  • the parents or guardian or the pupil him-/herself if he/she has reached the age of majority;
  • or the educational team in an ordinary educational institution, on the basis of a favourable opinion from the participation council, each member of which has given its consent.

The integration procedure consists of four steps:

  • An integration proposal: the request is submitted to the head of the specialised school concerned, who consults each of the parties involved (the two schools concerned, the two CPMSs, the parents and the pupil) and, if appropriate, draws up a favourable opinion which is signed by all.
  • Definition of an integration plan: this must be adapted to the pupil’s needs by the two educational teams, assisted by the centre which oversees the pupil. As a minimum, the plan includes the pupil’s file, the targeted objectives, the identification of specific equipment, the pupil’s transport needs, possible exemptions from the ordinary curriculum, and the arrangements for liaison between schools.
  • Compilation of an agreement: this includes the integration plan, consultation arrangements, arrangements for internal evaluation and the agreement of all the partners.
  • Communication to the Administration of Specialised Education of the list of pupils concerned.

The school plan must contain elements to help ensure the feasibility of the integration under consideration. The concept of ‘reasonable arrangements’ is defined in the decree of 12 December 2008:  it refers to appropriate measures, taken in light of the needs in a concrete situation, to enable a disabled person to participate and make progress, unless such measures impose a disproportionate workload on the person adopting them. The workload is not considered disproportionate if it is adequately compensated for by schemes available within public policy on disability.

Specific Support Measures

Integration may be undertaken using four possible approaches (defined in the decree of 5 February 2009):

  • total permanent integration: the pupil attends all classes in ordinary education throughout the year;
  • partial permanent integration: the pupil attends some classes in an ordinary school throughout the year, and others in a specialised school;
  • total temporary integration: the pupil attends all classes in ordinary education for one or more limited periods;
  • partial temporary integration: the pupil attends some classes in ordinary education for one or more limited periods.

The integration of a pupil into ordinary education requires coordination of the educational teams. Support from specialised educational personnel may be provided. The qualifications of such personnel depend on the pupil’s specific needs. Allowances, operational subsidies, and more favourable staffing norms are shared between the ordinary school and the specialised school, according to the type of integration and the disability. If specific equipment is needed for the integrated pupil, it must be made available to the ordinary school concerned. The pupil benefits from free transport.

Certain agreements (set out in the decrees of 30 April 2009) have been made between the French Community and the Regions (Walloon Region, Brussels-Capital Region) to formalise and support assistance for disabled pupils. The Walloon Agency for the Integration of Disabled People (AWIPH) for the Walloon Region, and the Brussels Fund for the Social and Professional Integration of Disabled People, also known as PHARE (an acronym for ‘Personne Handicapée Autonomie Recherchée’ – ‘Disabled Person Autonomy Sought’) for the Brussels-Capital Region may contribute to certain costs associated with integration (the purchase of special equipment, the adaptation of a building, etc.). These bodies also offer support with the integration process (assistance with communication, psycho-educational support, etc.).

Thus, the Integration Support Services (SAI), subsidised by AWIPH, can, at the parents’ request, support pupils between the ages of 6 and 20 with their schooling. They thus take over from the Early Support Services for young children. Amongst other tasks, the staff in the SAI can:

  • give ‘residual’ specialised support to the work of the school with the young person whose schooling is made difficult by his/her disability;
  • respond to one-off needs and/or help with the gradual attainment of full-time schooling for young people with disabilities who have either dropped out of school or are not receiving schooling.

Schooling continuity services (SAS) can help pupils undergoing a crisis by taking them in temporarily (decree of 15 December 2006).