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Belgium-French-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Belgium (French Community)

Contents

Belgium-French-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-French-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-French-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-French-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-French-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-French-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-French-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-French-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-French-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-French-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-French-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-French-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-French-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-French-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-French-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-French-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-French-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-French-Community:Legislation

Belgium-French-Community:Glossary

The Phases of Secondary Education and the  Types of School Curriculum

Secondary education is subdivided into three stage of two years each:

  • first stage: observation stage (normally for pupils aged 12 to 14 years – maximum 16 years old);
  • 2nd stage: orientation stage (normally for pupils aged 14 to 16 years);
  • 3rd stage: determination stage (normally for pupils aged 16 to 18 years old).

The first two years constitute the first stage, and correspond to CITE 2. The common first stage is organised for pupils who hold the certificate of primary education (CEB). A differentiated first stage, the main purpose of which is to enable pupils who do not hold the CEB to obtain it, is provided for pupils who may not join the common first year. Once the CEB has been gained, the pupil can be moved either into the common first stage or into a complementary year.

For pupils who, after attending the first stage for three years, have failed to attain the required level, a specific differentiation and orientation year (3 S-DO) is organised within the second stage. The purpose of this year is to help the pupil acquire the skills prescribed for the end of the third phase in the educational continuum and to devise, in conjunction with the relevant Centre for Psychological, Medical and Social Services, a personal plan which will enable him to continue his schooling.

From the third year onwards (second and third stages – CITE 3), education takes four different forms (general, technical, artistic and vocational) and consists of two streams (the transition stream and the qualification stream). In the case of the French Community, the distinction between CITE 2 and CITE 3 (two and four years respectively) does not coincide with the distinction between lower and upper secondary education (three years each).

The transition stream prepares pupils for higher education whilst also offering opportunities to enter the labour market, whereas the qualification stream prepares pupils to enter the labour market while also enabling them to continue their studies in higher education. General education is a transition stream, whereas vocational education is a qualification stream. Technical education and artistic education can be organised in the transition stream or in the qualification stream.
Secondary education also exists in the form of dual vocational education and training for young people from the age of 15 to 16 years, combining general education and vocational experience.

In parallel with secondary dual vocational education and training, small and medium-sized enterprises organise dual education and training programmes (apprenticeship contracts).

Beyond secondary education in the strict sense (CITE 2 and CITE 3), certain institutions organise seventh years or a fourth stage, while small and medium-sized enterprises (IFAPME and SFPME) organise the business management course.

Legislation

The main legislative texts have been supplemented and amended many times. The Gallilex database presents an unofficial coordinated version of the official texts, which is updated very regularly.

A significant reform of the secondary education system was adopted on July 19, 1971. A single structure for secondary education, called ‘reformed’ or ‘Type I’ education, was established, and has today almost completely replaced traditional education. The purpose of the reform was to postpone the choice of stream to the age of 15 or 16.

The ‘Decree defining the priority missions of pre-secondary and secondary education, and organising appropriate structures to achieve these’ known as the Missions Decree (24 July 1997), is a fundamental text which forms the basis for significant changes to pre-secondary and secondary education (ordinary and specialised).

In 2001, a decree reorganised secondary dual vocational education and training (modification of decree on 3 July 1991) and extended the repertoire of training profiles. A decree dated of 7 December 2007 organised differentiation on a structural basis within the first stage, in order to ensure that all pupils attain the Core Skills. On 11 May 2007, a decree regulated the possibility of introducing education in a linguistic immersion situation in secondary schools organised or subsidised by the French Community, and since 2007, a series of new provisions, the last of which is dated of 21 December 2011, has regulated the enrolment of pupils in the first stage of secondary education. On 11 April 2014, a decree was signed, defining among other things new arrangements for running dual vocational education and training and the creation of a single status for young people in this programme.

Secondary Education Institutions

Each of the three school networks mentioned in the Schools Accord (law of 29 May 1959) (the network of the French Community, the official grant-aided network, the free grant-aided network) organises secondary education. In accordance with the official requirements regarding equal opportunities for boys and girls, most secondary schools are now mixed.

The 500 or so institutions of full-time ordinary secondary education can be distinguished in terms of the education they provide: thus some institutions only organise the transition stream, while others only organise the qualification stream. Moreover, within the same type of education, the options which are offered may vary: some schools do not organise all three stages.

Dual vocational education and training is provided by education institutions called CEFAs (Centres of Dual Vocational Education and Training), by IFAPME (the Walloon Institute of Dual Vocational Education and Training for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises) and by EFPME (the Training Centre for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises). A CEFA is a structure common to one or more full-time secondary education institutions which organises qualification-stream technical education or vocational education in the second and third stages. IFAPME and EFPME are funded by small and medium-sized enterprises and fall within the scope of competence of the Regions.

Very recently, provisions have been made to encourage better schooling for children and teenagers with specific needs, most of whom are schooled in specialised educational institutions, and in particular their integration into ordinary education.