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Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

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Overview Belgium (French Community)

Contents

Belgium-French-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-French-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-French-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-French-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-French-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-French-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-French-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-French-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-French-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-French-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-French-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-French-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-French-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-French-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-French-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-French-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-French-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-French-Community:Legislation

Belgium-French-Community:Glossary

The education and care of young children are organised in two distinct types of structures: pre-primary or nursery education , from the age of 2,5, and childcare facilities : education and care for young children who can be cared for in day care centres or by childminders as soon as the  maternity leave of their mother is over (which generally means after 4 months).

In the French-speaking part of Belgium there is a variety of childcare facilities adapted to the needs of children and their family. Globally, the coverage rate for 0 to 3 years-old is 43,8%, which is above the Barcelona target, taking into account the children attending nursery school from the age of 2,5. This coverage rate is 28,2% for children under the age of 2,5, even if there is still an imbalance between supply and demand.

The ECEC sector is strongly regulated. It's forbidden by law to take care of a child under 6 outside school hours without the ONE's authorisation. However, no authorisation is required if the childminder is a family member or if the child is taken care of at his parents' home. Specific training is compulsory for all the staff of the childcare facilities, and also for self-employed childminders.

The ONE (Office de la Naissance et de l'Enfance- Office of Birth and Childhood) plays an important role in the organisation and regulation of the ECEC sector. The ONE is an independent public organism, and its two main missions are :

  • To support the child's development within his family and his social environment. The role of the ONE is to advise and support pregnant women, parents and families through medical and social action, in order to ensure the global wellbeing of children. Most of the services offered by the ONE are free.
  • To organise (that means to control and sometimes to finance) day care centres for children outside family background. The role of the ONE is to ensure that these structures operate correctly and provide quality care for children.

The ONE also has cross-cutting missions, such as parenting support for example.

There are two main categories of child care facilities for children under the age of three : day care centres, and childminders.

 

 

Subsidised by the ONE

Not subsidised by the ONE

Group day care centres

Crèche, day care centre, nursery school, kindergarten

Independent day care centres

Family day care centres

Contractually regulated childminders

Self-employed childminders

 

A quality framework (17 december 2003) considers both the quality of life of the children in the centres and the service provided to parents and to society. It defines general quality objectives which are directly inspired by the Children Rights Convention and by the European Commission's Recommendations on ECEC. The legislator considers that ECEC needs exceed the sole necessity of supervision of the child when his parents are not available , and that those needs are particularly related to his physical, psychological, cognitive, affective and social development.

More recently, two innovative sectors are being developed:

  • flexible day care centres ("haltes-accueil"), which address specific, occasional, urgent needs on reduced hours;
  • after school activities, support to homework, holiday activities and camps.

 

Pre-primary education organised or grant-aided by the French Community is commonly known as nursery education. Nursery education is defined  as education given to children whose age on 30 September is at least two years and six months and who are not yet in primary education . While constituting a level of education in its own right, nursery education is grouped with the three cycles of primary education under the umbrella term of pre-secondary education. Pre-primary education pursues all the general goals laid down in the Decree on the Missions of School (24 July 1997). Its specific aims are:

  • to develop children's awareness of their individual potential and encourage self-expression through creative activities;
  • to develop socialisation;
  • to develop the learning of cognitive, social, affective and psychomotor skills;
  • to identify children's difficulties and handicaps and address these through remediation.