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Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Belgium (French Community)

Contents

Belgium-French-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-French-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-French-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-French-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-French-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-French-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-French-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-French-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-French-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-French-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-French-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-French-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-French-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-French-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-French-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-French-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-French-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-French-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-French-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-French-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-French-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-French-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-French-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-French-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-French-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-French-Community:Legislation

Belgium-French-Community:Glossary

Pupil Assessment

Assessment is one of the aspects for which educational freedom is guaranteed for each network; in compliance with the relevant laws, decrees, and orders, each controlling authority may therefore define for the schools which it controls the type and frequency of assessments, the scoring system and the manner in which to communicate the results. However, the practice of formative assessment is obligatory.

The competencies and knowledge required at the end of the qualification stream, defining in concrete terms the level of study to be achieved, must help the educational teams to practise continuous formative assessment and school report assessments.

Various schemes have been introduced to ensure that pupils are assessed regularly : internal assessment procedures within the controlling authority or the school (school reports) and the class (summary and formative assessments introduced by the teacher). A scheme (TESS) to offer support to schools with the process of awarding the certificate of upper secondary education at the end of secondary education is being introduced.

By way of illustration, the paragraphs below set out the content of the study regulations adopted by the French Community to govern the education it provides. These regulations define a certain number of standards and priorities which should lead pupils to produce high-quality schoolwork; assessment methods used by teachers; and procedures for the deliberations in the class councils and the communication of information relating to their decisions. It redefines the role of formative assessment, in which an error never penalises pupils but serves as an indicator for the teacher’s and their own use; and the role of summative assessment, which, at the end of one or more learning sequences, gives pupils and their parents an indication of their level of knowledge acquisition and their command of competencies. All exams must be followed by an analysis and remedial support (except final exams in June). Exams are organised in December and June. Pupils, their parents, and the class council are regularly informed about aptitudes and achievement via a school report. The school report is handed out three times: between mid-November and the start of the winter holiday, between mid-March and the start of the spring holiday, and at the end of June. Additionally, when examinations are organised in December, the results are communicated in a school report before the winter holidays.

Assessment Tools

An Assessment Tools Committee is responsible for producing sets of assessment tests which correspond to the reference guides: assessment tools are prepared under the supervision of the committees, which are composed of representatives of the different controlling authorities. They are designed for schools and for teachers, and are made available to them, together with an accompanying guide, as a guideline, providing information about the types of questions that should be set for pupils and the expected level at given moments in the course of their studies.

Assessment on an everyday basis

Each teacher assesses his or her pupils in light of his or her objectives and teaching. This is usually done after one or more learning sequences.

Under the Decree on the Missions of School (24 July 1997), each school must allow every pupil the opportunity to progress at his or her own pace, by practising formative assessment and differentiated pedagogy. Formative assessment is defined as assessment conducted in the course of activity, and aimed at appraising the progress made by the pupil and understanding the nature of the difficulties the pupil has encountered; its purpose is to improve, correct or adjust the pupil’s path; it is partly based on self-assessment. Differentiated pedagogy is defined as an educational approach which consists of varying methods to take account of the heterogeneous composition of classes and the diversity of pupils’ learning modes and needs.

In the qualification stream, global comprehensive exams on grouped options are organized during the school year. These integrated exams, leading to the Qualification Certificate (CQ), encourage coordination between theoretical and practical lessons and prepare pupils for the qualification test. Certificates of competence are issued to pupils upon successful completion of these exams.

Internal Assessments

Pupil assessments within classes are the responsibility of various bodies: some are associated with the controlling authority or the school (such as the school report, the class councils, etc.); others are arranged by the Centres for Psychological, Medical and Social Services (CPMSs); others again are organised by individual teachers.

The results of summary assessments are communicated to the pupils and parents via a school report. The intervals at which reports are issued and their content and form are defined by the controlling authority.

Other parties involved

The members of the qualification board from outside the school are invited to examine pupils’ work continually during the school year.

There must be continuity between learning in school and in an enterprise. An internship must meet precise educational criteria. The teacher who is the internship advisor handles assessment preparation and guidance. He or she collaborates with the ‘tutor’, who is a company employee responsible for the student at the internship premises. According to predetermined criteria, the internship is continually assessed with the intern’s involvement. The assessment is formative. A report is issued upon completion of the internship (summative assessment).

In the business management course, learners undergo an assessment in each of the courses they take at the end of each course year.

External Certificative Assessments

An ‘upper secondary education test’ or TESS, the purpose of which is to assist schools with the process of certificative assessment at the end of secondary education, is being introduced: tests are made available which relate to part of the required knowledge and competencies for each of the subjects concerned, and which are intended to be integrated with the assessment conducted within the institution. The instructions for sitting the test, the questions and the marking criteria are the same for all pupils. Every year the government determines the subjects to which the tests relate as well as the forms, streams and options concerned. The Government organizes the assessment of one subject more globally (through various skills) in the TESS, and refocused this test on a major subject : French. The TESS has been compulsory for all pupils in French since 2015.

The decision to award the certificate of upper secondary education to a pupil is based on the results obtained in the external examination with respect to the skill which has been considered in the evaluated discipline, and the results of internal assessments with regard to the other skills in that discipline. The weighting of the examination with respect to the other skills is left to the appraisal of the class council. If the pupil passes the external exam, the class council takes the view that the pupil has achieved the level of mastery of the skill that is expected in the assessed discipline.

Progression of Pupils

In Education

One or two examination sessions are held each year. The primary purpose of the June exam is to ascertain whether pupils have achieved the minimum competencies needed to progress. A student deferred in June must take the final exam in September.

The class council

The Missions Decree (24 July 1997) specifies that decisions about pupils’ progression to the next grade or cycle and the issue of diplomas, certificates and pass attestations within a secondary education institution are, with the exception of the certificate of primary education, the responsibility of the class council.
The class council is chaired by the head of school and consists of the members of the management and teaching staff responsible for educating a defined group of pupils. There are thus several class councils in an institution. The parents and pupils are not represented within the council. It bases its opinions on factors such as the pupil’s previous school record, interim period reports and exam results, information received from the Centre for Psychological, Medical and Social Services, and in some cases meetings with the pupil and his or her parents. The class council is responsible for preparing a mental aptitude, social and behavioural report on each student at regular intervals; drawing the appropriate educational conclusions; proposing any necessary guidance or remedial support and, if need be, orientations or re-orientations; establishing a common approach to each student. It takes the necessary decisions at the end of the year regarding promotion to the next grade (with or without restrictions), deferment (with the obligation of taking final exams in September), denying promotion and certification

Appeal possibilities

A pupil who has reached legal age, or the parents or guardian of a pupil who is still a minor may inspect, if possible in the presence of the teacher responsible for the assessment, any test which constitutes all or part of the basis for the decision of the class council. Each controlling authority defines an internal procedure for handling any disputes that arise regarding the decisions taken within the school and aimed at promoting the reaching of an understanding between the different parties. If the internal procedure fails to produce agreement, the pupil who has reached legal age, or the parents or guardian of a pupil who is still a minor, may submit an appeal against a decision that the pupil has failed or only achieved a restricted pass. The appeal must include detailed argumentation, and is sent by registered letter to the Administration, which passes it on immediately to the Chairperson of the Appeal Committee.

In the Business Management Course

In the business management course, learners undergo an assessment in each of the courses they take at the end of each course year. The length of the internship agreement may, under certain conditions, be extended by up to one year in the event of the intern failing the mid-course or end-of-course assessment, or reduced in light of the intern’s progress as revealed during assessments. The internship agreement includes a three-month trial period.

Certification

In Full-Time Education

The authorities and official bodies of the French Community, and especially the schools, the services of the Ministry of the French Community and the General Inspection Service verify for their respective areas of responsibility that pupils’ studies are completed in accordance with the legal requirements in force in the French Community. The Ministry of the French Community affixes the seal of the French Community to the upper secondary education certificates issued by schools organised or subsidised by the French Community in accordance with the legal requirements in force in the French Community.

The 7th qualifying technical year leads to the award of a CQ7 and of the certificate of 7th year studies.

The 7th complementary technical year leads to the award of a skills attestation complementing the qualification certificate that gain the pupil admission to the year, and to the certificate of 7th year studies.

The type B 7th vocational year leads to the award of the upper secondary education certificate (CESS) and to the qualification certificate for the 7th year of vocational education (CQ7) if the chosen core option is classified as qualifying, or to a skills attestation complementing the qualification certificate that gain the pupil admission to the year if the chosen core option is classified as complementary. The type C 7th vocational year leads to the award of the upper secondary education certificate (CESS)

At the end of the fourth stage, vocational school certificates for the complementary secondary cycle (BEPSC in nursing) are issued. Pass attestations are issued every year.

In the Business Management Course

At the end of the overall training, the learner must take an examination of practical knowledge. To gain admission to the exam, he or she must prove that he or she has gained a minimum level of practical experience in one of the following ways:

  • through an apprenticeship contract and/or internship agreement;
  • through a worker’s, assistant’s or temporary agency-supplied worker’s employment contract;
  • through the exercise of a profession as a self-employed person;
  • through an ‘employment/training’ agreement.

Learners who pass the end-of-course exams obtain a business management diploma that is approved by the French Community and satisfies the legal requirements for admission to a profession. At present there is no equivalence with the qualifications issued by the Ministry of Education.