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Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

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Overview Belgium (Flemish Community)

Contents

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and learning in secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-Flemish-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-Flemish-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Legislation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Glossary


Curriculum, subjects, number of hours

Weekly time table

See second and third stage.

The obligatory subjects from general education in the second and third stage of vocational secondary education are:

second stage vse

third stage vse

philosophy of life

philosophy of life

Dutch

Dutch

mathematics and/or applied natural sciences and/or applied physics and/or applied chemistry and/or applied biology

social training, or

natural sciences and history and/or geography

French or English

French or English

social training, or

natural sciences and history and/or geography

social training, or

natural sciences and history and/or geography

physical education

physical education

Because of the specificity of the programme no basic curriculum is laid down in the third grade of the third stage of vse. In addition the subject ‘religion or ethics’ is not obligatory in official education.

Study fields and courses of study in vocational secondary education

Fulltime vocational secondary education

The specific courses of study according to the structure are listed on the website of Flemish Education and by course of study in the annexes to circular letter SO 60:

  1. Sports
  2. Car engineering
  3. Construction
  4. Decorative techniques
  5. Glass techniques
  6. Graphical communication and media
  7. Commerce
  8. Woodwork
  9. Jewellery
  10. Cooling and heating
  11. Agriculture and horticulture
  12. Personal hygiene
  13. Social safety (only third grade of third stage)
  14. Maritime programmes
  15. Mechanics-electricity
  16. Fashion
  17. Construction of musical instruments
  18. (People) Care
  19. Textiles
  20. Tourism
  21. Nutrition

Specialisation years in the third grade of the third stage of vse must in principle be chosen within the same field of study. A permission by the admissions committee is necessary to choose a specialisation year in a different field of study.

Part-time vocational secondary education

The possible courses of study in part-time vocational secondary education are listed on the Flemish education website.

Attainment targets

Fulltime vocational secondary education

See second and third stage.

Part-time vocational secondary education

In modular education general and vocational training is organized in the form of hours learning and working. 

For youngsters who follow pathways that lead to a Secondary Education Certificate general education must comply with the preconditions of attainment targets and teaching plans. The level of study is in this way equivalent to that from fulltime vocational secondary education.

As subject-related attainment targets the existing attainment targets for the subjects from the basic curriculum of vocational secondary education apply, with the exception of the subject of physical education. As cross-curricular attainment targets the attainment targets of vocational secondary education apply.

Part-time training

Individual developmental pathways are organised to guide youngsters who can not yet work labour oriented towards a qualified pathway. It concerns in general socially vulnerable youngster whose behavioural, emotional and social problems are further intensified by the circumstances in which they find themselves. An individual developmental pathway strives to give them insight in their own situation and to make the problematic situation bearable.

Prior to the start of an individual developmental pathway a motivated report needs to be drawn up. This is done by an employee of the Pupil Guidance Centre (PGC) of the CPE and is the result of the intake, the screening, data from the PGC and, possibly, data from the class council. This report contains at least the form of the individual developmental pathway to be taken as well as the start date.

An individual developmental pathway is a flexible pathway. It can be built as follows:

  • 28 hours (of 50 minutes) with the components learning and work-based learning (no labour participation, bridging project or preparatory pathway); or
  • 15 hours (of 50 minutes) with the component learning and combined with a bridging project or preparatory pathway); or
  • 13 hours (of 50 minutes) with the component work-based learning (no labour participation, bridging project or preparatory pathway) and combined with part-time vocational secondary education in a Centre for Part-time Education. 

Individual developmental pathways for youngsters with personal or social problems in part-time vocational secondary education can only be organized by a Centre for Part-Time Training. But the youngsters in question can only be enrolled in a Centre for Part-time Education. For this reason a cooperation between both centres is crucial. A youngster can beforehand present himself in a CPT, that will act as a coordinator for the follow-up procedure. After presenting himself in a CPT the youngster must enrol in a CPE of his choice.

The system of apprenticeships

An apprenticeship comprises:

  • a practical training (four days a week) in an enterprise, given by the employer or a monitor appointed by the employer;
  • a theoretical training during at least 30 weeks per school year. This training comprises general education (minimum 4 hours a week) and vocational education (minimum four hours a week), possibly supplemented with language courses or remediation courses for pupils who have fallen behind. This training is given by teachers in a SYNTRA campus, one day a week (or 1,5 days a week for 15 year olds).

The theoretical training is given in a Centre for the training of independent and SME in a SYNTRA-campus.

  • The general training is given on the basis of teaching plans approved by the Flemish Government;
  • The vocational training comprises technical learning contents and is supplementary to and inextricably linked to the practical training in the enterprise;
  • The additional language courses are aimed at acquiring a basic knowledge of Dutch for non-Dutch speakers or at acquiring a basic knowledge of a foreign language in order to promote contact with the clientele;
  • The remediation courses are organised for pupils who have fallen behind in their education.

The stipulations of the Codex Secondary Education with regard to attainment targets, teaching plans and deviation procedures (with exception for the subject of physical education) for secondary education are also applicable to the general training in the system of apprenticeships.

Teaching methods and materials

Fulltime vocational secondary education

See first stage.

Alternance training system

Work-based learning is an important component within the system of alternance training (see 12.4.3. career guidance – alternance training system).

Pupil internships

Pupil internships aim at a guided participation of the pupil-intern to the activities of an actual labour position. The objectives of the internship are learning objectives where the learning return prevails. Pupil internships are allowed from the second stage onwards as long as the pupil is at least 15 years old and no longer subject to fulltime compulsory education.

The pupil-intern has a double statute: he is a pupil as well as an employer. The intern however is not granted a wage. Pupil internships can be organized in an alternating way (with fixed intervals and spread over a certain period) or as one unit (a continuous period).

For every pupil a pupil internship agreement must be concluded between the pupil-intern, the school and the organisation giving the pupil internship. A teacher acts as internship guidance officer. His assessment of the internship is taken into account in the final evaluation by the deliberating class council. He is also responsible for the preparation, supervision, educational guidance and evaluation of the pupil internship. This takes place in constructive consultation with the internship mentor who receives and guides the pupil-intern on the shop floor. The school is obliged to organize sufficient internship guidance and places. Also the organizer of the internship must offer sufficient support by means of the internship mentor.

The organisation of pupil internships is supported and promoted in education and sector covenants, by regional technological centres, a.t. (see 12.4.3). (Omzendbrief SO/2015/01, SO/2016/01 en SO 74).