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Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

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Overview Belgium (Flemish Community)

Contents

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and learning in secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-Flemish-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-Flemish-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Legislation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Glossary

 

Not every formal day care has a permit, a recognition, or a supervision certificate from Child and Family. With respect to these types of childcare, Child and Family does not have any legal responsibility concerning the establishment and evaluation of the regulatory conditions these day care locations should meet.

Childcare for pupils attending primary school (out-of-school care)

Organisation of childcare for pupils attending primary education

Definition: the professional and paid for organisation of childcare outside of school hours or during school holidays for children who attend primary education primary education[1], either part-time or fulltime. The activities of youth and sport organisations are excluded from this definition.

Every family childcare or group childcare centre must apply for a permit, a recognition, or a supervision certificate with Child and Family. Centre-based care or home-based care locations with a permit are free to choose whether they exclusively offer childcare to pupils or whether they offer their services to babies and toddlers too[2].

When a day care centre has acquired a permit, Child and Family will regularly evaluate whether the legal requirements are still sufficiently met. Kind and Gezin’s verdict is inter alia based on the evidence gathered by the Agency for Care Inspection (cf. above), which carries out research ‘on the ground’.

Specific conditions are linked to the acquisition of a permit, recognition or supervision certificate. For the acquisition of a recognition, specific requirements apply, which are much like those for obtaining a permit, but depart from the specificity of the age group of the pupils (cf. above). The personnel qualifications, however, are relatively less demanding in this case and no quality manual has to be written out.

In addition to the childcare of pupils with a permit, a recognition or a supervision certificate, or  informal childcare of these children (i.e. non-professional childcare by grandparents, friends, family, …) reported day care also exists. For not all those who professionally organise day care for pupils attending primary school against payment, apply for a permit, a recognition or a supervision certificate at Child and Family. In that case, they only fulfil the obligation to report administratively at Child and Family[3]. These initiatives which are only reported are not subject to any further regulatory conditions[4]. Child and Family does not control this type of childcare, unless complaints are laid down or something grave happens. The Agency for Care Inspection will then assess in which circumstances children are cared for, and whether that situation is acceptable.

In 2015, preparations have commenced to also develop a new Parliamentary Act for pupils attending primary education.  

The system for subsidies concerning formal day care for pupils from primary education, does not work like a staircase. If a day care centre wishes to receive a subsidy, then it should fulfil specific conditions. These condition vary according to type of childcare and according to the type of subsidy. The out-of-school care is also subsidised by other organisations besides Child and Family.  

The out-of-school care centres are usually free in determining the contribution families have to pay for the childcare of their child attending primary education[5]. The day care location can determine freely how it wishes to use the income generated from the financial contributions of the families. Exceptions to this rule are formed by the locations that were caring for pupils (whether or not together with babies and toddlers) already before the implementation of the new Parliamentary Act, and already asked an income-related contribution from the families.

For a number of specific assignments, supplementary subsidies, exist; however, not every childcare location is ‘eligible’ for such subsidies as specific requirements have to be met. Examples of such supplementary subsidies are the subsidies for the inclusive childcare of pupils with specific needs, or subsidies for the flexible childcare or occasional care. Occasional care provides childcare for a child during a period of maximum six months, irrespective of the intensity of use, for one of the following reasons: a) the parent is not working and starts a training; b) the parent is not working, but suddenly finds a job; c) the parent is participating in job interviews; d) there is a critical situation in the family; e) the family has the need for a short decrease in work load; f) social or pedagogical care during the day care, outside of the own family, is needed for the child.

Accessibility

The organiser of childcare for pupils from primary school can use a social rate, if the financial situation of the families requires this. This social rate amounts to maximum 50% of the normal price as set by the organiser. In very exceptional cases, if the situation of the family requires this, the organiser can allow free day care.

An organiser of centre-based care with a permit, who meets the conditions for a ‘subsidy for initiative out-of-school care’, can obtain an additional subsidy for the care for children from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The organiser ensures that at least 33% of the subscribed children live in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in Flanders, or in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital.

At the end of 2014, the number of places for the childcare of pupils attending primary education amounted to 41,024. Only around 1.000 of these places is offered by home-based care. Moreover, almost all places for the childcare of pupils are not related to income. This means that parents pay a price that is not dependent on their income, but instead can be freely determined by the day care location. This price is determined by the duration of the care; the minimum and maximum prices determined in the regulation.

Childcare for

Type of care

Number of care locations

 

Number of childcare places

Pupils attending primary school (out-of-school care)

Home-based care

214

1,131

Without income-related rate

15

90

With income-related rate

199

1,041

Centre-based care

889

39,621

Without income-related rate

889

39,621

With income-related rate

 

 

Centre-based care (collaboration)

24

272

Without income-related rate

 

 

With income-related rate

24

272

Total out-of-school care

1,127

41,024

Number of childcare locations and childcare places for pupils attending primary school (out-of-school care) in Flanders in 2014.

Source: Yearbook Child and Family 2014

Age Levels and Age Groups

Cf. “admission requirements” and “organisation of childcare: childcare for pupils attending primary education”.

Organisation of time

The organiser of childcare for pupils with a supervision certificate and a subsidy for the basic provision, ensures a day care offer of minimally 220 opening days per calendar year.

Organisers of childcare for pupils with a recognition and a subsidy for initiative for out-of-school care, ensures a day care offer of minimally 230 opening days per calendar year, with an opening time between 7.00h and 18.00h. Of those days, minimally 50 are opening days with a continous opening time.

Organisers of childcare for pupils can obtain a supplementary subsidy for flexible opening hours (for example, opening hours with a duration of more than 11 hours between 6.00h and 20.00h) and occasional childcare (cf. above).

Childcare organised by the school

  • This is centre-based childcare
  • A considerable amount of schools provide childcare before or after school hours. The amount of childcare professionals, the training of the childcare professionals, the decoration and size of the rooms, the way in which childcare professionals deal with parents and children, and the price for the childcare provided, are not legally regulated. The school has full autonomy in this domain.
  • Schools are obliged to report to Child and Family the fact they offer childcare services. Child and Family does not inspect or evaluate these day care locations, unless complaints are filed or a grave situation occurs. The Agency for Care Inspection will check the circumstances in which the children are cared for, and whether the care situation is acceptable. Schools can, however, apply for a supervision certificate with Child and Family, in which case Child and Family will assess whether the day care location meets the regulatory conditions. 

Childcare during holidays, organised by youth movement, health insurance or other organisations

During school holidays, a considerable amount of activities and camps for children attending education are organised, such as playgrounds, activities or camps organised by sport-, youth-, culture-, or other organisations. For these types of childcare, Child and Family bears no responsibility for the evaluation of the compliance with regulatory standards. This responsibility lies with other organisations.

Childcare for ill children

Some health insurances, Public Social Welfare Centresand municipalities offer a baby-sitter for ill children. Some companies offer similar services, when children of their employees are sick. For these types of childcare, Child and Family bears no responsibility for the evaluation of the compliance with regulatory standards. This responsibility lies with other organisations.



[1] In Flanders, primary education includes both elementary school as early childhood education.

[2] Usually, this concerns the childcare locations that were already offering day care to pupils from primary school before the implementation of the new Parliamentary Act on the organisation of childcare for babies and toddlers.

[3] Informal day care is exempted from this obligation to report.

[4] This concerns for example the childcare taking place within school walls, before or after school hours.

[5] The price is linked to the duration of stay. The minimum and maximum amount per day care moment (before school, after school, on a Wednesday afternoon or on school holidays) are determined in the regulation.