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Belgium-Flemish-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

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Overview Belgium (Flemish Community)

Contents

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Historical Development

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Political and Economic Situation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation and Governance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Private Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Qualifications Framework

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Funding in Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Higher Education Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Adult Education and Training Funding

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Childcare

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Pre-Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in the First Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in the Second and Third Stage of Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Organisation of secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teaching and learning in secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Assessment in secondary-after-secondary education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Belgium-Flemish-Community:First Cycle Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Bachelor

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Second Cycle Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Distribution of Responsibilities

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Providers

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Main Types of Provision

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Teachers and Education Staff

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management and Other Education Staff

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff for Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Educational Support and Guidance

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility and Internationalisation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in School Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms in Higher Education

Belgium-Flemish-Community:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Belgium-Flemish-Community:European Perspective

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Legislation

Belgium-Flemish-Community:Glossary

 

Historical overview

Adult education

Technical and vocational adult education was founded in the fifties and sixties. This form of education was called Education for Social Promotion. Depending on the programme a participant could obtain a certificate or a qualification. The synergy between the Education for Social Promotion and fulltime secondary education was further embedded in legislation in the sixties and seventies.

In the period 1970-1980 other forms of continuing education were developed. In 1985 a more global concept with regard to adult basic education was introduced, which was implemented in an experimental way at five places. This resulted in the Adult Basic Education Centres (ABECs), which were established by the parliamentary act of 12 July 1990. These centres target in particular adults with low skills and a low level of education and strive to teaching and improving basic competences which are fundamental in order to function and participate within society.

Education which offers adults a second chance to obtain a diploma of secondary education was established in the same period as the Adult Basic Education Centres. For a long time adults could only obtain this diploma of secondary education when they succeeded, after self-tuition, for the exams organized by the Central Examination Committee of the Flemish Community. In time various initiatives were taken which prepared adults by means of training for obtaining the diploma of secondary education. This was called ‘second chance education’. The parliamentary act of 2 March 1999 provided the opportunity to obtain the diploma of secondary education via the Education for Social Promotion at the Adult Education Centres. Nowadays the study area of General Education is organized by 37 Adult Education Centres.

Compartmentalisation and various economic developments laid at the basis of the fact that in the nineties the provision of adult education was broad but very scattered. There were too many small centres with an offer which was not very rational and unclearly profiled. The parliamentary act of 2 March 1999 initiated some important developments in adult education. An important economy of scale was carried out which implied greater autonomy, a systematic and methodical approach and professionalization. A couple of renewing impulses was given, such as the introduction of modularisation and blended learning. The parliamentary act allowed for a broadly accessible provision of adult education, which lowered the barriers to participate in lifelong learning.

Entrepreneurial training

The history of entrepreneurial training goes back as far as the guilds. Working with apprenticeships however constituted the starting point for the training of the self-employed where a pupil was trained on the shop floor for four days a week and took classes in a centre for one day a week.

For independent professions and SMEs an official framework for the training of entrepreneurs and for youngsters via apprenticeships was established as early as 1947. In 1959 guidance by pedagogical advisors was organised. At a later stage this task was taken over by the Institute for Continuing Training of the Self-Employed and from 1991 onwards by the Flemish Institute for Independent Entrepreneurship. This institute was established as a government agency. Since 2004 training is organised by the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training – SYNTRA Flanders – which resorts under the responsibility of the minister of work.

Overview of the current policy priorities

The ‘Policy Paper on Education 2014-2019’ from the current Flemish Minister of Education, Ms. Hilde Crevits, mentions various challenges which adult education is facing and which the minister, in close cooperation with the educational partners, wants to address:

  • creating stronger institutions for adult education in order for them to perform their assignment with a maximum amount of autonomy; 
  • inciting the institutions to use their means as rationally as possible and to focus on vulnerable target groups by implementing an economy of scale in the organizational sphere and by modernizing the financing system; 
  • realising a better cooperation between adult education and other providers of professional training, industry, welfare institutions, the socio-cultural and youth sector and local authorities; 
  • gearing the provision of Dutch as a second language better to the existing needs, both as concerns quality as well as quantity, and both for people integrating who are obliged to learn Dutch, as well as for those who want to learn Dutch voluntarily.