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Genetically modified plant
Environmental Impact and Risk Management
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General information Notification NumberB/SE/19/5614Member State to which the notification was sentSwedenDate of acknowledgement from the Member State Competent Authority04/04/2019Title of the ProjectPotato lacking amylose starchProposed period of release:10/04/2019 to 15/11/2023Name of the Institute(s) or Company(ies)Lyckeby Starch AB Is the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier? NoHas the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier?No
Genetically modified plant Complete name of the recipient or parental plant(s):
Description of the traits and characteristics which have been introduced or modified, including marker genes and previous modifications: Potatoes with a lack of amylose starch
Native starch is a mix of to two different components, amylose and amylopectin. The two molecules are both made up of glucose molecules but differ in that amylopectin is a large branched molecule, while amylose is a long and mainly straight molecule. The straight chains of the starch molecules are synthesized by different starch synthases (SS). A granular bonded starch synthase (GBSS) builds the chains of amylose while soluble starch synthases (SSS) build chains of amylopectin. The branches of the starch molecules are synthesized by branching enzyme (SBE). SSS is available in various forms (I-IV), and its functions differ marginally in that they build amylopectin chains of different lengths. In the potato lines of this application, GBSS, GBSS + SSSIII or GBSS + SSII + SSSII have been mutated to knock out the amylose synthesis, and in the latter two mutagenesis also reduce the chain length of the amylopectin. A starch with a lack of functional GBSS enzyme and thus lack of amylose has properties which in food applications provide a starch with high storage stability. An even higher storage stability can be achieved by mutation in one or a few of the SSS enzymes. To achieve the same storage-stable function of native starch, it needs to be chemically modified. The potato lines developed would reduce the use of chemicals in the starch industry with 4000-5000 tonnes/year in Sweden.
The absence of the starch component amylose has been verified in tubers of the lines grown in tissue culture and greenhouse cultivation via, for example, iodine staining and microscopy of starch granules.
Genetic modification Type of genetic modification: Deletion; Other; Other
MutagenesisIn case of deletion of genetic material, give information on the function of the deleted sequences: The lines have induced mutations in the genes GBSS, SSS3 and SSS2 in existing genome. GBSS synthesizes the starch molecule amylose and SSS3 as well as SSS2 synthesizes long straight amylopectin chains.Brief description of the method used for the genetic modification:
The potatoes have been developed through mutagenesis. A nuclease, Cas9, catalyzes double-stranded breaks (DSB) of the genome. THe DSBs are repaired by the potato's own repair system, "non homologus end joining" (NHEJ). On some occasions, small genetic changes arising from the NHEJ repair occur of small "indels". Cas9 has been guided to the gene of interest via an RNA guide. If the recipient or parental plant is a forest tree species, describe ways and extent of dissemination and specific factors affecting dissemination:
Experimental Release Purpose of the release: The purpose of the release is to;
- Study any morphological changes that may arise from somatic variation as a result of in-vitro culture.
- Study tuber yield and starch content of the mature tubers of the cultivated lines, as this is not possible in the greenhouse.
- Extract starch from the tubers for further use in various application studies.
Long-term goals are variety testing and marketing.Geographical location of the site: Release sites that may be relevant are located in all municipalities in Skåne and Blekinge. In addition, the municipalities of Torsås, Kalmar, Mörbylånga, Borgholm, Mönsterås, Skara, Lidköping, Mariestad, Vara and Götene may be relevant.Size of the site (m2): The site will not exceed a total of 1500 haRelevant data regarding previous releases carried out with the same GM-plant, if any, specifically related to the potential environmental and human health impacts from the release: Not applicable. Another potato (Eliane), with the absence of amylose developed by mutagenesis are grown commercially and its starch is marketed by AVEBE. Eliane is exempt from GM regulation.
Environmental Impact and Risk Management Summary of the potential environmental impact from the release of the GMPts: Potatoes with a lack of amylose are not expected to have any increased environmental impact compared to other cultivated potatoes. They are not expected to cause any alteration in pollen production, seed size, germination property or any other property that changes spreading or reproduction. No trait has been added that would yield a selective benefit in a natural environment. Generally, potato is sensitive to cold and therefore has no competitiveness outside the growing season. Potatoes are also highly susceptible to a number of plant diseases, like for example Phytophtora infestans, which is a leathal infection for potatoes, and therefore has no competitiveness over other plants. Potatoes are not exceptionally exposed to herbivores. The developed potato lines is not expected to have any change to the above-mentioned characteristics compared to wild type variety.Brief description of any measures taken for the management of risks: Potatoes occur only in the cultivated landscape. No indication of wild potato plants has been reported and has no compatible relatives in Europe and can therefore only cross with other cultivated potatoes. To minimize the spread of pollen, a distance of 20 m to other cultivated potatoes will be applied. Cleaning of machines, tools and transport vehicles will take place after handling the potato lines. No potatoes will be grown on the site the following year. The trial will be inspected by responsible growers at least once every second weeks. Protection against disease infections and animals will be taken if nedeed. The following cultivation will take place in such a way that no part of potato can enter the food- or feed chain.Summary of foreseen field trial studies focused to gain new data on environmental and human health impact from the release: Not applicable
European Commission administrative Information Consent given by the Member State Competent Authority: Yes 05/09/2019 Remarks: