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Genetically modified plant
Environmental Impact and Risk Management
European Commission administrative Information
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General information Notification NumberB/SE/18/17930Member State to which the notification was sentSwedenDate of acknowledgement from the Member State Competent Authority03/12/2018Title of the ProjectWheat with increased oil contentProposed period of release:01/03/2019 to 30/09/2023Name of the Institute(s) or Company(ies)Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Is the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier? NoHas the same GMPt been notified elsewhere by the same notifier?No
Genetically modified plant Complete name of the recipient or parental plant(s):
Description of the traits and characteristics which have been introduced or modified, including marker genes and previous modifications: The modification has been made to increase the oil content of seeds. The modification has been achieved by expressing a gene (AsWRI1) from oat seeds coding for a transcription factor that induce glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis in wheat seeds. A construct containing this target gene was transformed into wheat together with a construct containing the bar gene for herbicide tolerance (against glufosinate ammonium-containing herbicides). The application concerns homozygot wheat lines with 1, 2 or 12 gene copies of the target gene AsWRI1.
Genetic modification Type of genetic modification: Insertion;In case of insertion of genetic material, give the source and intended function of each constituent fragment of the region to be inserted: Source and intended function of the genetic material that has been introduced to the modified wheat:
pHMWWRI1: pMB1 ori (589 bp), Escherichia coli, replication start for plasmid replication. HMW1Dx5 pro (1249 bp), Triticum aestivum (wheat), promoter for endosperm (seed)-specific expression (from the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin promoter). AsWRI1 (1338 bp), Avena sativa (oat), coding for a transcription factor WRINKLED1 that induce transcription of gycolysis and fatty acid synthesis genes which gives increased oil content. HMW1Dx5 ter (643 bp), Triticum aestivum (wheat), terminator for endosperm (seed)-specific expression (from the wheat ’high-molecular weight glutenin’ terminator). 35S term (710 bp), Cauliflower mosaic virus, terminator for transcription. bla (858 bp), Escherichia coli, coding for an enzyme (betalactamase) which gives ampicillin-resistence (Amp).
pAHC20: ColE1 (619 bp), Escherichia coli, replication start for plasmid replication. bla (930 bp), Escherichia coli, coding for an enzyme (betalactamase) which gives ampicillin resistence (Amp). Ubi1+intron (1992 bp), Zea mays, Ubiquitin 1 promoter + first intron that drives constitutive expression and prevents expression in bacteria. Bar (541bp), Streptomyces hygroscopicus, coding for an enzyme (a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase) conferring resistance to herbicides with glufosinate ammonium. nos T (250 bp), Agrobacterium tumefaciens, nopaline synthase terminator for gene of interest.Brief description of the method used for the genetic modification:
The gene construct containing the target gene from oat (AsWRI1) and with a gene giving ampicilline resistance as bacterial selection marker was transformed together with another gene construct containing the bar gene giving herbicide tolerance (against herbicide with glufosinate ammonium) as selection marker into unmature scutellum from develoing wheat seeds (cv. Cadenza) by particle bombardment. Transformed plant material was selected under selection pressure from glufosinate ammonium in tissue cultures from which whole plants were developed. Segregating seeds from the first generation were planted and genomic DNA from leaf tissues were screened using PCR to identify homozygot individuals. The application concerns homozygot lines with 1, 2 or 12 gene copies and controls. If the recipient or parental plant is a forest tree species, describe ways and extent of dissemination and specific factors affecting dissemination:
Experimental Release Purpose of the release: The aim with the field trial is basic research regarding evaluation of the possibility to induce biosynthesis of oil in cereal grains by reallocation of carbon between starch and oil, by expressing a regulating genetic factor from oat. The purpose with the release of wheat that express this oat gene that gives increased oil content of seeds is to study the change in carbon flow in seeds during the growth period under field conditions. More specificially the following will be studied:
• If the increased oil content observed in seeds under greenhouse conditions also can be observed under field conditions with regards to quantity and quality
• If the effect on starch and sugar synthesis observed under greenhouse conditions also can be observed under field conditions with regards to quantity
• If effects on yield per plant, spike lenght and spike density observed under greenhouse conditions also can be observed under field conditionsGeographical location of the site: Lomma municipality, Kävlinge municipality, Halmstad municipality, Kristianstad municipality.Size of the site (m2): Maximum 3000 m2 (=0,3 ha)Relevant data regarding previous releases carried out with the same GM-plant, if any, specifically related to the potential environmental and human health impacts from the release: No release of the modified wheat has been done previously.
Environmental Impact and Risk Management Summary of the potential environmental impact from the release of the GMPts: The aim of the modification is changed seed quality through seed-specific expression of the target gene AsWRI1. The modified wheat is not different from controls with regards to developmental rate, flowering time or seed set under greenhouse conditions. There is no reason to assume that the introduced traits which give a changed seed quality would give selective advantage in a natural environment. The introduced trait tolerance against glufosinat-based herbicides (that was used as a selection marker for transformed plant material in the lab) could only give a selective advantage in areas were this herbicide is used, and glufosinate as active ingredient is not allowed in herbicides in Europe.Brief description of any measures taken for the management of risks: The plots with modified wheat will be surrounded by a 10 m wide protective pollen barrier with non-modified cereal (which is included in the field trial area). No wheat, other cereals or wild relatives to wheat will be allowed to be grown within another 5 m from the field trial area. This area of 5 m outside the field trial area will be inspected once a month during the growing season regarding precense of such species which if they are found will be removed either manually or by herbicide application.
After sowing, grading of germination, development, flowering, seed setting and harvest will be noted. The field trial area will also be inspected twice a week.
To minimise the risk that pollen from the modified wheat will end up in honey, an inspection will be made prior to the sowing to ensure that there is no beekeeping within 3 km from the field trial area.
Seeds for sowing and threshed material will be packed in marked double bags and transports to/from SLU in Alnarp will be done by car. All machines used for the field trial will be filled/cleaned carefully within the field trial area. Plant material remaining after harvest including the pollen barrier with non-modified cereal will be destroyed by burning off the field trial area. After burning off the field, it will be harrowed before winter to stimulate volunteers to germinate.
The field trial area will be inspected once approximately two months after harvest to identify potential volunteers which are removed either manually or by herbicide application. The field trial area will be in fallow the following year and potential volunteers are noted in March/April where after harrowing is done to stimulate volunteers to germinate. The fiel trial area will then be inspected once a month until November. Inspections are then made during three years, or two years if no volunteers are observed year one. If volunteers exist year three, the field will be harrowed again and the inspection continue like above. If new modified wheat is released at the field trial site the clock is set at zero and treatment and inspections are started anew according to above.Summary of foreseen field trial studies focused to gain new data on environmental and human health impact from the release: Documentation of observations of the modified plant material during the growth season and inspections of the field trial area and surrounding zone will be made.
European Commission administrative Information Consent given by the Member State Competent Authority: Yes 05/03/2019 Remarks: